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LIBRARY OF 
CONGRESS 


FISCAL YEAR 2016 


Congressional Research Service 

Informing the legislative debate since 1914 






































ANNUAL 

REPORT 

Congressional Research Service 
Library of Congress 
Fiscal Year 2016 

To the Joint Committee on the Library 
United States Congress 

Pursuant to 
Section 321 
Public Law 91-510 

Mary B. Mazanec 
Director 


January 2017 























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DIRECTOR’S MESSAGE 



TT'\7’2016 was an exciting and historical year for the Library, as Dr. Carla Hayden was 
_l_ _I_ nominated and confirmed as the 14 th Librarian of Congress after the retirement of her 

predecessor Dr. James H. Billington. The Congressional Research Service (CRS) welcomed and looked 
forward to working with Dr. Hayden to continue to fulfill its unique mission to provide authoritative, 
confidential, nonpartisan, and objective research and analysis to Congress. This report highlights CRS’s 
legislative support and the management initiatives undertaken to bolster our services during the fiscal year. 


Major legislative issues this fiscal year included 
comprehensive energy legislation, defense reform, federal 
health insurance programs, immigration, Middle East 
turmoil, privacy, the Zika outbreak, student financial 
aid, and water quality. Throughout these debates and 
more, Congress relied on CRS expertise, placing more 
than 62,000 requests for custom analysis and research. 
The Service hosted more than 9,200 congressional 
participants at seminars, briefings, and training; 
published more than 3,500 new or updated reports; 
summarized more than 6,300 bills; and maintained 
nearly 10,000 products on its website for Congress, 
CRS.gov, which received over 1.7 million views. 

Overall, CRS provided confidential, custom services 
to 100% of Member and standing committee offices. 

The Service is always working to optimize its operations 
to best serve Congress and anticipate its needs. In 
FY2016, we pursued several management initiatives. 
Notably, CRS led a project, at the direction of the 
House Committee on Appropriations, to survey 
Members of Congress and their staff regarding Library 
of Congress products and services and especially those 
of CRS. The survey yielded responses from more 
than 1,300 staff and 63 Members. The results showed 
strong support for the work of CRS. Respondents gave 
high ratings to CRS for its core values, consultative 
services, and custom products. Respondents also 
indicated a preference for a broad range of products 


and services. The survey provided the Service 
with significant insights about its products and 
services valued by the Congress. We are using those 
insights to inform our strategic planning efforts. 

To that end, the Service continued its strategic planning 
process by developing a detailed operations plan, as well 
as establishing a process for assessing and updating the 
plan. Other management accomplishments included 
the introduction of a new product, Infographics, which 
presents complex information in a visual format, 
and the further development of another product, 
Interactive Maps, which illustrates multidimensional 
public policy issues. CRS also continued to improve 
and enhance its systems and technology that 
support service to Congress. We contributed to the 
development of Congress.gov, the next-generation 
legislative information system; we upgraded Mercury, 
our customer relationship management software; and 
we redesigned parts of CRS.gov to make it easier for 
congressional clients to discover and use CRS products. 

Our accomplishments in FY2016 not only confirm our 
dedication to the Congress, but position us to better 
serve Congress in the future. The Service is committed 
to meeting Congress’s needs and exceeding expectations 
as Members, staff, and committees shape legislation 
and the nation’s future. It is an honor and privilege to 
serve the U.S. Congress and the American people. 


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CONTENTS 


I. CRS SERVICE TO CONGRESS. 1 

Legislative Support to Congress . 1 

Indicators of CRS Performance and Productivity . 2 

FY2016 CRS Service to Congress: A Snapshot. 2 

II. LEGISLATIVE SUPPORT TO CONGRESS. 5 

Major Issues of the Year . 6 

Foreign Relations, Defense, and Trade . 12 

Domestic Social Policy. 15 

Government and the Economy. 19 

Resources, Industry, and the Environment . 23 

Law and Justice . 26 

III. MANAGEMENT INITIATIVES .29 

Strategic Planning. 30 

Congressional Client Satisfaction Survey. 30 

Congress.gov Accomplishments. 30 

Mercury Upgrade . 31 

Policy Review. 31 

The Constitution of the United States of America: Analysis and Interpretation . 31 

CRS Website Improvements. 32 

Information Professionals (IP) Pilot . 32 

Infographics . 32 

Interactive Maps. 33 

Technology Enhancements . 33 

New Member Seminar. 33 

Support for CRS Staff. 34 

APPENDIXES 

A. FY2016 Budget, Resources, and Other Funding . 36 

B. Workforce Management and Development. 37 

C. Types of CRS Support to Congress: Research Services and Products . 41 

D. CRS Organizational Structure . 47 

E. CRS Organizational Chart. 50 

F. Listing of All Senior Level Positions by Title, Grade Level, 

and Incumbent at the Beginning and End of FY2016 . 51 

G. Listing of All Specialist and Senior Specialist Personnel Actions in FY2016 ... 53 

H. Listing of All Senior Level Position Changes in FY2016 . 53 

I. New CRS Products in FY2016. 54 


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he Congressional Research Service (CRS) assists Congress by supporting its legislative, 

JL. oversight, and representative functions. CRS provides objective, analytical research and 
information to all Members and committees of Congress. Principles guiding the work of the 
Service, in accordance with its charter, are encompassed in the CRS mission: 

CRS serves Congress throughout the legislative process by providing comprehensive 
and reliable legislative research and analysis that are timely, objective, authoritative, 
and confidential, thereby contributing to an informed national legislature. 

Lawmakers rely on CRS for timely, balanced analysis of all public policy issues and legislative 
proposals on the congressional agenda. CRS assistance includes substantive analytical written products, 
tailored confidential memoranda, issue-related seminars, and personal consultations and briefings. 

In FY2016, CRS served Congress as it considered complex domestic legislative proposals 
concerning federal health insurance programs, immigration, housing assistance, and pensions and 
retirement income. Experts offered support during congressional debate in both chambers focusing 
on constitutional law, environmental law, telecommunications and Internet policy, and privacy 
and law enforcement issues. The Service also worked closely with lawmakers as they addressed the 
U.S. response to the Zika outbreak, changes in student federal loans, the federal regulation and 
rulemaking process, and aviation security. Equally challenging situations for Congress were foreign 
policy issues regarding international law and treaties; implications of a changing global order; 
Middle East instability; the Trans-Pacific Partnership; defense reform; the Iran Nuclear Agreement; 
Puerto Rico’s fiscal crisis; declining U.S. agricultural exports; and cybersecurity and data breaches in 
both private and public sectors. For all these public policy issues and more, Congress relied on the 
authoritative and confidential support that CRS offered at each stage of the legislative process. 


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CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • CRS SERVICE TO CONGRESS 


INDICATORS OF CRS PERFORMANCE AND PRODUCTIVITY 

In FY2016 CRS received 563,000 requests for products and services from Members and committees, including 
approximately 62,000 requests for custom analysis and research. Congressional staff viewed the CRS website 
approximately 1,700,000 times, including 634,000 views of the Service’s reports and general-distribution products. 
Approximately 9,200 congressional participants attended CRS seminars, institutes, and training programs. 

By the end of the fiscal year the Service had more than 10,000 reports and online products available. The Service’s 
appropriations status table was viewed approximately 28,000 times. CRS analysts summarized more than 6,300 
bill versions for Congress.gov and the Legislative Information System. CRS served 100% of Member and standing 
committee offices. The following table provides more details of CRS performance. 


FY2016 CRS SERVICE TO CONGRESS: A SNAPSHOT 


The following are selected data on products and services provided to Congress during FY2016.These data are derived from 
the CRS request management system, the web metrics application, and other applications that measure output. CRS support 
for Congress also comes in the form of personal client interactions that may not always be captured by these systems. 


CUSTOM PRODUCTS AND SERVICES 


Confidential memoranda 

In-person briefings, consultations, and testimony 

Telephone responses 

Email responses 

Background and miscellaneous services 1 

Total custom products and services 



62,491 


GENERAL-DISTRIBUTION PRODUCTS 


New CRS reports and other general-distribution products 
Updates to CRS reports and other products 
Bill summaries in LIS/Congress.gov 


| 1,197 
■ 2,471 

6,312 


Total new/updated general-distribution products 


9,980 


1 Summary of categories with small total counts, such as revising existing reports upon demand for a specific client, supplying DVDs of a 
recorded event, sending non-CRS created materials, etc. 









FROM 


WEB ACTIVITY 


1,742,258 Congressional Views on CRS.gov Pages : 


634,329 

27,610 

29,449 

2,160 

5,856 

CRS report and 

Appropriations 

Legal 

Find an 

Video views 

general distribution 

Status Table 

Sidebar 

Analyst 

(Video Briefs and 

product views 

views 

views 

page views 

recorded events) 


MyCRS Subscriptions 
* " (approximate active l 


: users at year end) 


OTHER DATA 


10,315 

CRS reports and product titles 
available at year end 



Member/Standing 
committee offices provided 
custom services 2 3 


9,207 

Congressional participants 
in seminars, institutes and 
training programs 


2 Includes the selected highlights indented below plus other pages on CRS.gov such as the home page, issue pages, and event pages. 

3 Percentage for which at least one custom service was provided during the year, rounded to the nearest 1 %. 









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supported Congress in FY2016 during all stages of the legislative process and 
across all public policy issues. This support included examining the nature 
and extent of problems facing Congress; identifying and assessing policy options; assisting with 
hearings on policy proposals and on implementation of policies; supporting congressional review of 
nominations and treaties; and providing products, briefings, and consultations to address issues on 
the legislative agenda. Highlights of the year are as follows. 



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CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • LEGISLATIVE SUPPORTTO CONGRESS 


MAJOR ISSUES OF THE YEAR 


Comprehensive Energy Legislation. Members of 
Congress from both chambers met in conference to 
negotiate major energy and natural resources legislation. 
Energy issues covered by proposed bills included 
electric grid modernization, security, and reliability; 
carbon capture, utilization, and storage; renewable 
energy incentives; oil and natural gas supply and trade; 
energy efficiency; and energy sector regulation. Natural 
resource provisions included critical minerals supply; 
mineral development on federal land; funding for land 
acquisition and parks maintenance; various fish and 
wildlife management directives; and water resource 
management and drought relief. CRS provided ongoing 
support for the conference process through in-person 
consultations, comparisons of bill sections, analysis of 
provisions, new reports, and updates. 

Constitutional Lave. Constitutional law was a central area 
of congressional concern during the past year, primarily 
because the role of the Constitution in shaping American 
society has been a prominent issue in the 2016 election 
and because the death of Justice Antonin Scalia raises 
the potential for significant changes to the future of 
constitutional interpretation by the Court. CRS attorneys 
provided guidance to lawmakers through a variety of 
formats, including efforts to prepare the decennial 
edition of the Senate Document, The Constitution of 
the United States of America: Analysis and Interpretation , 
presentation of seminars for the Federal Law Update 
series relating to constitutional law, the Court’s criminal 
law cases, and the application of the Constitution’s 
Supremacy Clause. In the wake of the death of Justice 
Scalia and the nomination of Judge Merrick Garland to 
be his successor, CRS attorneys wrote comprehensive 
reports to guide lawmakers with regard to the Supreme 
Court vacancy. 

Defense Reform and the National Defense Authorization 
Act. CRS assisted lawmakers as they debated 
key provisions in the FY2017 National Defense 


Authorization Act (H.R. 4909, S. 2943), beginning 
with seminars for staff of both chambers on the 
President’s defense budget request, always the first such 
overview and analysis available to Congress following 
the Administration’s initial budget presentation. 

CRS analyzed legislative proposals in both chambers 
addressing the reform proposals to streamline security 
cooperation and assistance authorities, the strategic 
rationale for security cooperation, and policy implications 
of a potential shift in interagency dynamics, especially 
between the Departments of Defense and State. CRS 
experts examined proposals related to reform of the 
Department of Defense, addressing such issues as 
changing the defense acquisition process, reorganizing 
the Department of Defense, adapting major military 
personnel and health provisions, and assessing overseas 
contingency operation funding. As the bill entered its 
conference phase, more than 60 CRS analysts prepared 
side-by-side comparisons of the more than 1,000 
provisions in the House and Senate versions of the bill. 

Environmental Lave and Policy. Environmental 
law and policy were prominent areas of interest for 
Congress in FY2016. CRS analysts and attorneys 
assisted Congress by analyzing House and Senate 
differences regarding the Toxic Substances Control Act 
amendments in 2016 (P.L. 114-182), including help with 
questions of legal interpretation, policy developments 
and implications, and legislative options during the 
conference process and earlier legislative deliberations. 
When the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 
issued its Clean Power Plan rule regulating emissions of 
greenhouse gases from existing fossil fuel-fired power 
plants in 2015, CRS analysts and attorneys briefed 
congressional requesters regarding the implications of 
the rule and provided written reports and memoranda. 
CRS attorneys presented a Federal Law Update seminar 
on environmental law. CRS also played an active role in 
briefing Members and committees on a myriad of other 
issues involving environmental law and policy. 


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CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • LEGISLATIVE SUPPORTTO CONGRESS 


Federal Aviation Administration. In FY2016 both the 
House and Senate addressed legislation to reauthorize 
civil aviation programs, encompassing everything from 
regulation of unmanned aircraft to subsidized air service 
to small communities. A key issue in both chambers was 
whether to reorganize Federal Aviation Administration 
air traffic control operations as either a private entity or 
an independent government-owned corporation. CRS 
responded to congressional requests for analysis as the 
two chambers considered provisions relating to aviation 
security, hiring of air traffic controllers, and maintenance 
of control towers at small airports. After temporary 
extensions, legislation enacted in July 2016 reauthorized 
aviation programs through September 2017. 

Federal Health Insurance Programs. The Medicare Access 
and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 (P.L. 114-10) 
introduced the most substantial modifications in decades 
to how the Medicare program pays physicians. CRS 
provided Congress with briefings and helped develop 
policy options to address potential implementation 
challenges. CRS experts examined the potential effects 
of the FY2016 Social Security cost-of-living adjustment 
on Medicare Part B premiums, analyzed legislative 
options, and provided technical assistance to Congress as 
legislation was enacted to address Medicare beneficiary 
concerns and the program’s long-term financial viability. 
CRS testified at a congressional hearing on Medicaid 
financing and assisted Congress in understanding federal 
funding for the Planned Parenthood Federation of 
America and its affiliated health centers. 

Financial Regulation. The Dodd-Frank Act of 2010 
(P.L. 111-203) responded to the financial crisis of 2008 
by increasing regulation of financial institutions. Some 
have seen this regulation as a drag on the economy, 
and Congress responded with numerous hearings and 
bills aimed at providing regulatory relief to financial 
institutions. CRS analyzed and explained the legislative 
proposals and helped lawmakers understand the 
tradeoffs in proposed legislation as the costs posed 
by regulation were weighed against potential benefits 


to consumers or against the stability of the financial 
system. CRS assisted as Congress considered securities- 
related proposals that in many instances would have 
focused on corporate regulatory relief. CRS attorneys 
also addressed Wells Fargo’s creation of 2 million 
unauthorized debit and credit card accounts, fair 
lending issues, matters of international finance law, and 
the effect of the nuclear agreement with Iran on the 
Export-Import Bank’s operations. 

Housing Assistance. The 114th Congress enacted the 
first significant reforms to the nation’s largest rental 
housing assistance programs, public housing and Section 
8 housing choice vouchers since 1998. Enactment of 
the Housing Opportunity Through Modernization 
Act (P.L. 114-201) followed from the work of at least 
seven Congresses. In FY2016, as in previous years, CRS 
analyzed proposals ranging from administrative updates 
to expanded deregulation and changes to the programs’ 
core structures, such as how benefits are provided and 
who is served. CRS examined the proposals from all 
angles — from distributional effects to practical and 
technical considerations. 

Immigration. Immigration remained a major focus 
during the 114th Congress, largely because of the 
Supreme Court’s review of the challenge that Texas and 
approximately two dozen other states brought against 
the Obama Administration’s 2014 proposal to grant 
relief from removal and work authorization to up to 
40% of the total “unauthorized alien” population. CRS 
attorneys prepared numerous products in anticipation 
of and response to the Court’s decision. CRS attorneys 
and policy analysts also played a significant role in 
providing Congress with legal analysis and information 
about the resettlement of Syrian refugees in the United 
States, the immigration consequences of changes in the 
United States’ relationship with Cuba, and the potential 
imposition of “visa sanctions” on foreign countries 
that do not cooperate in the return of their citizens 
or nationals who are ordered to be removed from the 
United States. 


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CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • LEGISLATIVE SUPPORTTO CONGRESS 


Implications of a Changing Global Order. Global events 
in the last several years are creating a fundamentally 
new global environment that poses new, unfamiliar, and 
profoundly daunting challenges to the United States. 
Through an integrated set of forward-looking discussion 
programs, CRS highlighted the scope and complexity 
of the critical global changes underway, examined the 
intensity of the interactions of key factors generating 
that change, identified the difficult immediate and 
long-term questions to which such analysis leads, and 
articulated their implications and the tough policy 
choices Congress will face as a result. Among the issues 
addressed were the general trends shaping the new 
environment, implications for national security and 
defense, the changing contours of the global economy, 
radical transformation in the Middle East, the global 
refugee challenges, the future of Europe, the “new” 
geopolitics of Asia, and emerging nuclear challenges. 

International Law. CRS attorneys provided research 
and analytical support through briefings and written 
products on a number of foreign affairs and international 
law issues, including the Paris Agreement made by 
parties to the United Nations Framework Convention 
on Climate Change, the Joint Comprehensive Plan of 
Action regarding Iran’s nuclear program, resolutions 
issued by the United Nations Security Council, and 
various treaties submitted to the Senate for its advice and 
consent. The attorneys also researched the status of the 
settlement claims against Iran and assisted as Congress 
enacted the Justice Against Sponsors of Terrorism Act 
(PL. 114-222), which may facilitate lawsuits against 
foreign entities for alleged involvement in terrorist acts. 
Other legal assistance included support on issues related 
to ongoing military operations against A1 Qaeda and the 
Islamic State organization (ISIS) and a CRS Infographic 
that visually illustrates international commitments taking 
the form of executive agreements. 

Iran Nuclear Agreement. At the start of 2016 the United 
States and the international community adopted the 
Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) with 


Iran to cap Iran’s alleged nuclear weapons program. The 
plan brought congressional attention to a range of issues 
bearing on both the agreement (such as implementation 
milestones and the role of the International Atomic 
Energy Agency in monitoring Iran’s compliance) and 
broader implications. CRS offered assessments of the 
agreement as well as of the Iran sanctions regime and 
was frequently called on to help evaluate the extent and 
effect of sanctions relief stemming from the JCPOA 
as well as new legislation Congress was considering. 

CRS also supported Congress with ongoing and 
multidimensional analysis of the Iranian political arena 
and its foreign policy implications. 

Middle East TurmoilTerrorism , and Instability. In 
FY2016 Congress focused on the turbulent Middle 
East and North Africa, especially ISIS, as the region 
experienced ever-deepening crises. CRS provided 
Congress with in-depth analysis and authoritative 
information about ISIS and the international struggle 
against it and other terrorist groups in Iraq and Syria as 
well as Libya, Yemen, Egypt, and beyond the region to 
Europe and Asia. CRS analyzed a new Memorandum 
of Understanding between the United States and Israel 
aimed at enabling Israel to defend itself effectively in 
the midst of regional instability and Israel’s continued 
concerns about threats from Iran. CRS also conducted 
detailed investigations of the failed July coup in Turkey, 
whose aftermath has had significant ramifications for 
U.S.-Turkey relations, including for U.S. forces and 
assets based in Turkey to counter ISIS. That event was 
also important with regard to Turkish-backed operations 
to counter Syrian Kurds operating as important 
anti-ISIS ground forces and as opponents of the Asad 
regime in Damascus. 

Pensions and Retirement Income. Of continued concern 
to legislators were the implications of a 2014 law that 
allowed multiemployer-defined benefit pension plans in 
poor financial condition to apply to the U.S. Treasury to 
reduce benefits to plan participants, including retirees 
currently receiving benefits. Cutting current retiree 


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CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • LEGISLATIVE SUPPORT TO CONGRESS 


benefits was seen by many as an unprecedented move. As 
the U.S. Treasury considered the application of a large 
multiemployer plan, CRS consulted with lawmakers and 
provided briefings. After the application was denied, 
Congress called on CRS for consultative support on the 
projected insolvency of the Pension Benefit Guaranty 
Corporation, which insures participants’ pension 
benefits. CRS also analyzed the controversial fiduciary 
rule issued by the Department of Labor that expands 
the definition of investment advisers in retirement 
plans, holding more advisers to a higher standard. 

Poverty. During the past year the issues of poverty 
and economic mobility continued to be of interest to 
Congress. The year also marked the 20th anniversary 
of the 1996 welfare reform law (P.L. 104-193), which 
provided additional focus on the role of government 
programs in the economic well-being of the poor. CRS 
examined the extent to which families are eligible 
for need-tested benefits, the population that receives 
need-tested benefits, and the amount of benefits they 
receive. Experts also addressed the share of those eligible 
who receive benefits from selected need-tested programs. 
The analyses were based on census household surveys 
and a microsimulation computer model that estimates 
eligibility for benefit programs. CRS also produced 
analyses of trends in poverty, trends in pre-transfer 
(before government benefits) poverty over the period 
from 1968 to 2014, and persistently poor counties. 

Privacy. Numerous legal issues rose throughout the 
year concerning privacy, law enforcement interests, 
and private commercial interests. Increased concerns 
regarding data privacy resulted from a surge in 
cyberattacks and related liability issues. CRS attorneys 
reported on cybersecurity legislation, organized and 
held briefings, and prepared legal memoranda on 
cybersecurity information sharing. Following a ruling 
from the European Union Court of Justice that voided 
an agreement on transferring electronic data between 
the United States and Europe, CRS addressed the 
decision and the implications for U.S. law. CRS also 


prepared a legal analysis of the Microsoft Ireland 
decision that initially rebuffed the Department of 
Justice’s attempt to seek the content that Microsoft 
email communications stored on servers overseas. Other 
legal assistance supported the debate surrounding 
encryption and the government’s ability to access 
encrypted data, transnational data sharing as a part 
of law enforcement investigations, reform of the 
Electronic Communications Privacy Act (H.R. 283, S. 
356), and the Federal Communication Commission’s 
issuance of the proposed Privacy Rule for Broadband 
Internet Service Providers. 

Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico’s fiscal difficulties raised 
a broad range of policy issues, including economic, 
governance, legal, and social welfare aspects of the 
crisis. CRS created an array of products on a number 
of platforms, including seminars, briefings, and 
written analyses, to help lawmakers understand the 
situation in Puerto Rico and develop possible solutions. 
CRS experts addressed proposals including legal 
and operational issues related to debt restructuring 
mechanisms, oversight boards, the revitalization of key 
sectors of the island’s economy, potential environmental 
consequences, and federal health care program 
financing on the island. The proposals culminated in the 
enactment of the Puerto Rico Oversight, Management, 
and Economic Stability Act (PROMESA, P.L. 
114-187). Subsequently, CRS provided ongoing support 
to a congressional task force on economic growth in 
Puerto Rico mandated by PROMESA. 

Regulations and Rulemaking. Congress relied on 
CRS expertise as it focused on the issuance and 
implementation of rules promulgated by federal 
agencies. Much of this assistance involved explaining 
and evaluating the executive orders and statutory 
requirements that govern the current rulemaking 
process. CRS analyzed legislative proposals pending 
before the 114th Congress that would change the 
rulemaking process. CRS briefed Congress on how to 
track particular regulations that may be of interest. For 


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CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • LEGISLATIVE SUPPORTTO CONGRESS 


example, CRS explained how to identify specific types of 
regulations such as “major” or “economically significant” 
regulations. CRS analysts and attorneys also assisted with 
analysis of the Congressional Review Act (P.L. 104-121). 

Response to the Zika Outbreak. Emergence of the Zika 
virus in the Western Hemisphere and its toll of birth 
defects resulted in a CRS-wide response. Analysts and 
attorneys across the Service reported on policy concerns 
affecting countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, 
as well as the United States and its territories. These 
concerns included access to maternal and child 
health services, shortages of Zika testing supplies, the 
effectiveness and safety of both historical and novel 
mosquito control measures, the safety of the U.S. blood 
supply, and possible effects of the outbreak on the Rio 
Olympic and Paralympic Games. CRS helped Congress 
as it considered measures to fund Zika response efforts 
and assisted in understanding Zika funding requests 
in relation to the status of appropriated funds for the 
previous Ebola crisis. Congress repeatedly turned to 
CRS legal, policy, and budgetary experts as it deliberated 
an aid package to support domestic and international 
efforts to contain the outbreak. 

Russia , Ukraine , and NATO. Numerous challenges 
posed by Russia’s foreign policies, particularly in Ukraine 
and Syria, and Russia’s reported use of elements of 
“hybrid” warfare such as disinformation, cyberattacks, 
and support for Euro-skeptic political parties and 
movements in Europe, continued to be of concern to 
Congress. Russia’s solidification of its annexation of 
Crimea and its deepening involvement in a pro-Russia, 
separatist uprising in eastern Ukraine resulted in the 
renewal several times of economic and other sanctions 
imposed on Russia and the continuation of financial and 
material support to Ukraine to maintain that country’s 
independence and sovereignty. Congress drew on CRS 
expertise to help understand the complexity of the 
implementation of the Minsk-2 peace agreement, the 
reform movement within the government of Ukraine, 


military tension in eastern Ukraine, the question of 
renewed or additional sanctions, and the motivations 
and long-term goals of Russian President Vladimir 
Putin. Congress also called on CRS regarding NATO’s 
evolving role, including the outcome of NATO’s 
July Summit in Poland that resulted in additional 
commitments by the United States. 

Student Financial Aid. CRS has been heavily involved 
in supporting the development and refinement of 
proposals to assess aspects of the quality of institutions 
of higher education using student outcome measures. 
CRS provided expertise as Congress considered 
the comprehensive Higher Education Act of 1965 
(P.L. 89-329 as amended) reauthorization proposals, 
modifications to student loan repayment benefits, 
alterations to the design of Pell Grants, and changes to 
the federal student aid need analysis formula. Support 
included simulating the distributional effects of varied 
changes to the need analysis formula and Pell Grant 
award rules and estimating the effects of making 
changes to income-based student loan repayment plans 
on borrowers’ monthly and total repayment amounts. 
CRS also outlined the reasons the Department of 
Education withdrew recognition of the nation’s primary 
accreditor of for-profit colleges and universities, 
highlighted potential consequences of this action, and 
identified available options for federal student aid 
recipients attending such institutions. 

Telecommunications and Internet Policy. Policy analysis 
and assessment of telecommunications and Internet 
technology were of great interest to Congress during 
the past year. CRS policy experts provided written 
and oral support to Congress on a wide range of 
issues, including the complex matter of transferring 
the sole authority of control for Internet domain 
names from a national to an international purview. 

CRS analysts provided a series of targeted explanatory 
memoranda and assisted with hearings on related 
telecommunication and Internet issues. 


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CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • LEGISLATIVE SUPPORTTO CONGRESS 



Trans-Pacific Partnership. CRS devoted substantial 
resources to analyzing and supporting Congress in its 
consideration of the completed Trans-Pacific Partnership 
(TPP) free trade agreement (FTA) — the largest and 
most complex FTA the United States has ever negotiated. 
The TPP, which governs the United States and 11 other 
Asia-Pacific countries, would reduce and eliminate barriers 
to trade in goods, services, and agriculture; formulate trade 
rules on a range of complex issues; and establish new 
commitments to enforce core international worker rights 
and trade-related environmental provisions. CRS analysts 
and attorneys supported Congress in a multifaceted 
manner, focusing on issues from the agreement’s economic 
and geopolitical strategic implications to assessments of 
individual provisions such as those relating to agriculture, 
digital trade, intellectual property rights, dispute resolution 
mechanisms, and parts of the agreement that break new 
ground in FTAs pertaining to such issues as cybertheft 
and state-owned enterprises. 


Water Quality. In a year when the lead contamination 
in the drinking water in Flint, Michigan made national 
headlines, CRS provided assistance to Congress on 
water quality issues. While much of the focus was 
on the situation in Flint, CRS addressed broader 
concerns about drinking water quality, including 
issues of funding, health standards, and delegation of 
statutory responsibility. CRS analysts and attorneys 
addressed regulations issued by the U.S. Army Corps 
of Engineers and the EPA defining the scope of waters 
protected under the Clean Water Act (PL. 92-500). 
Legal challenges to the rule continued to be litigated, 
and a stay halted implementation. The Service provided 
extensive support to Congress in helping to understand 
the scope and potential implications of the proposal and 
assisting Members as they debated legislative options to 
address the rule. 


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CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • LEGISLATIVE SUPPORTTO CONGRESS 


FOREIGN RELATIONS, DEFENSE, AND TRADE 


Challenges in U.N. Peacekeeping. Congressional concern 
intensified in FY2016 with hearings addressing reports 
of abuses perpetrated by U.N. peacekeepers in various 
missions overseas. Although charges of misconduct were 
not a new phenomenon, renewed controversy erupted 
over numerous reports of recent allegations of sexual 
abuse and exploitation by peacekeepers serving in the 
U.N. Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission 
in the Central African Republic and elsewhere. Both 
the House and Senate considered legislative proposals 
to increase accountability and abuse prevention in 
peacekeeping. CRS provided research support on U.N. 
peacekeeping in general as well as on recent charges and 
the multiple policy dimensions of the issue, including 
U.N. system efforts to address the problem and U.S. 
efforts to hold the perpetrators accountable. 

Europe. CRS experts assisted Congress with extensive 
congressional oversight related to Europe, increased 
terrorist incidents in France and Belgium, and the 
impact on Europe of the migration of refugees fleeing 
conflicts in Syria, Iraq, Libya, and elsewhere. CRS also 
supported Congress during various inter-parliamentary 
exchanges in which Congress engages, including the 
NATO Parliamentary Assembly, the Transatlantic 
Legislator’s Dialogue, and the British-American 
Parliamentary Group. 

Export-Import Bank and Other Economic Challenges. 
Reauthorization and reform of the U.S. Export-Import 
Bank, the off cial U.S. export credit agency, continued 
to be a focus of congressional attention. CRS provided 
authoritative research and analysis to support the 
work of Congress on the issue, both in the lead up 
to reauthorization and its ongoing operations and 
implementation of mandated reforms. CRS supported 
Congress with analysis of the evolving global economy 
and its growing complexity and impact on the United 
States by addressing slower growth in Europe and in 
emerging economies such as China and Brazil, exchange 


rate and market volatility, and major transformations in 
international trade and investment. 

Latin America and the Caribbean. Three key issues in 
the Latin America and Caribbean region were the 
focus of congressional attention: the peace process 
in Colombia, the evolving U.S. policy toward Cuba, 
and ongoing security issues in Central America. CRS 
experts provided background on various options, 
including legislation to address both U.S. involvement 
in these issues as well as the potential impact on overall 
U.S. Latin America policy. Other issues for which CRS 
provided support included U.S. relations with Mexico; 
Brazil’s political upheaval and its economic challenges 
as it hosted the Summer Olympics; and Haiti’s 
continuing political, economic, and social problems. 
Throughout the year CRS continued its participation 
in the congressionally sponsored program series “Latin 
America on the Rise,” first launched at the beginning 
of the 113th Congress. CRS recommended speakers 
and served as moderators of the many sessions that 
addressed such issues as education, freedom of the press, 
rule of law, private investment, and U.S. engagement in 
the region. 

North Korea. North Korea has presented U.S. 
policymakers with some of the post-Cold War period’s 
most persistent foreign policy challenges. Although the 
primary focus of U.S. policy toward North Korea has 
been Pyongyang’s nuclear weapons program, other issues 
also populate the U.S. policy agenda, including North 
Korea’s missile programs, cyber capabilities, human rights 
abuses, and implications of possible North Korean attacks 
against South Korea and Japan. CRS provided briefings, 
analyses, and tailored products to ensure Members of 
Congress were fully informed of North Korea’s domestic 
conditions, political situation, international relations, and 
nuclear diplomacy. Lawmakers relied on CRS expertise to 
identify and understand possible U.S. policy approaches 
following two 2016 nuclear weapon tests by Pyongyang, 


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CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • LEGISLATIVE SUPPORTTO CONGRESS 


and CRS analysts worked closely with Congress in 
analyzing and developing the legislative basis for U.S. 
economic sanctions. 

Strategic Transformation in South Asia. For the past 
decade the United States and India have been pursuing 
a “strategic partnership” based on shared values and 
apparently convergent geopolitical interests, and many 
analysts characterize India as a potential counterweight 
to China. CRS examined these developments, including 
their implications not only for bilateral relations, but also 
for dynamics in the region. Moreover, as India’s economy 
and capabilities have grown, Pakistan, among the leading 
recipients of U.S. foreign assistance in the post-9/11 era, 
increasingly appears to be looking to China to counter 
Indian dominance. CRS analyses examined regional 
issues including links between Pakistan and indigenous 
U.S. terrorism, Pakistan-India tensions and conflict, 
nuclear weapons proliferation, human rights protection, 
and economic development. Other CRS experts 
evaluated issues elsewhere in South Asia, including the 
Islamist militant threat in Bangladesh and reform and 
reconciliation in Sri Lanka, where 2015 presidential 
and parliamentary elections brought a domestic policy 
shift toward a new era of democratic governance, with 
implications for regional geopolitics and U.S. interests. 

Terrorism, Conflict, and Political Instability in Africa. 
Members of Congress have increasingly been concerned 
about the threat posed by emerging terrorist groups 
in Africa as well as the Middle East, and some 
have pressed the Administration to focus greater 
intelligence and security resources on these groups. CRS 
supported Congress by providing analysis on possible 
approaches to groups such as Boko Haram in Nigeria 
and al-Shabaab in Somalia. CRS supported multiple 
congressional activities centering on destabilizing 
attempts by Sub-Saharan African regimes to retain 
power through undemocratic means. For example, 

CRS provided a variety of analyses on the situations in 
Burundi, Rwanda, the Republic of the Congo, and the 
Democratic Republic of Congo. Analysts also addressed 


political, security, and humanitarian crises associated 
with internal armed civil conflicts in South Sudan, 
Somalia, the Central African Republic, and Mali. 

Terrorist Financing. Congress drew on CRS expertise 
as it examined the multidimensional challenge of 
countering the financing of international terrorism. 
Support included assistance with hearings that ranged 
in focus from ISIS to trade-based money laundering, 
to the interagency process to counter emerging 
terrorist financing threats. Throughout FY2016 CRS 
analysts and attorneys collaborated across several 
subject disciplines: transnational crime, international 
and U.S. financial systems, and geographic regions. 

This work included analyses of general U.S. and 
international measures to counter terrorist financing 
and money laundering; ISIS financing, including 
revenues generated from oil and antiquities smuggling; 
trafficking in persons; the nexus between transnational 
organized crime and official corruption and trafficking, 
including wildlife trafficking; and emerging complex 
schemes and new technologies supporting terrorist 
financing and measures to counter them. 

Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership and 
“Brexit. ” C RS worked with Congress on a major trade 
agreement as it entered its fourth year of negotiation, 
the U.S.-EU Transatlantic Trade and Investment 
Partnership (TTIP). Given the size of the bilateral 
economic relationship between the United States and 
the European Union, this proposed, comprehensive free 
trade agreement has significant implications for the 
United States, the EU, and the broader global trading 
system. CRS regularly updated Congress on the status 
of the negotiations, the priorities of the respective 
sides, and the outstanding issues that remained to be 
resolved before the agreement could be concluded. 

A related policy issue for Congress was the United 
Kingdom’s decision to leave the European Union. 

CRS supported Congress as it expressed increased 
interest in the vote’s outcomes, particularly the trade 
and economic implications, including the impact on 


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CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • LEGISLATIVE SUPPORTTO CONGRESS 


TTIP as well as on a potential future U.S.-UK free trade 
agreement, which many Members supported through the 
introduction of House and Senate resolutions. 

U. S. Alliances and Geopolitical Developments in Asia. 
CRS responded to Members’ growing interest in the 
evolving nature of U.S. alliance relationships in Asia. 
CRS experts supported Congress as it addressed 
U.S. economic and security priorities and evaluated 
the implications of an arbitration case related to the 
South China Sea dispute between the Philippines and 
China under the U.N. Convention on the Law of the 
Sea. CRS analyzed the northeast Asian governments’ 
response to Russia’s so-called “turn to the East” and its 
implications for U.S. interests, the National League for 
Democracy’s landslide victory in Burma’s nationwide 
parliamentary elections, peace talks between the 
Burmese government and armed organizations long 
embroiled in ethnic conflict, and Taiwan’s security. 
Analysts also addressed the Obama Administration’s 
decision to restrict arms sales to Vietnam; developments 
in Thailand where political and economic instability 
persist in the wake of two military coups in the past 
nine years; and the situation in Indonesia, the world’s 
most populous Muslim-majority nation and third 
largest democracy. 

U.S.-China Relations in a Global Context. The United 
States and the People’s Republic of China lead the 
world in the size of their economies, defense budgets, 
and greenhouse gas emissions. Many analysts see their 
cooperation as necessary to address an array of global 
challenges, yet their differences have increasingly tipped 
the relationship toward rivalry. Congress relied on 
CRS expertise as it examined expanding U.S.-China 
cooperation in addressing global and regional 
challenges including weak economic growth, climate 


change, and nuclear proliferation. CRS supported 
congressional discussion of friction in the relationship 
including China’s actions in the South China Sea; 
cyberespionage; the Chinese government’s harsh 
treatment of activists, dissidents, and ethnic minorities; 
and its resistance to calls for democratic reforms in 
Hong Kong. CRS experts kept Congress up to date on 
China’s efforts to broaden and deepen its economic and 
diplomatic engagement in other regions, especially its 
initiatives to connect economically to Central Asia and 
South and Southeast Asia. 

U.S. Military Posture. As congressional concerns over 
events in the Levant, Eastern Europe, and East Asia 
have resulted in greater focus on potential U.S. military 
responses, CRS provided consultation and analysis on 
both U.S. strategic choices and military capabilities to 
implement those choices. CRS analysts gave testimony 
on acquisition alternatives to allow the Coast Guard 
and the Navy to build their force structure, and they 
provided key insights into the Commission on the 
Future of the U.S. Army, the impact of the Budget 
Control Act on Air Force aircraft procurement, and 
the challenges of the U.S. military space program. CRS 
experts kept Congress informed about nuclear issues, 
including North Korean nuclear tests, their implications 
for regional deterrence, and the International Atomic 
Energy Agency’s role in verifying those tests. They 
analyzed alleged Syrian use of chemical weapons as 
well as potential North Korean, Iranian, and Syrian 
cooperation on nuclear and ballistic missile capabilities. 
CRS also provided consultative support on U.S. options 
regarding changes in how both partners and adversary 
nations are conducting warfare in the 21st century, 
with a focus on building partner capacity, irregular 
warfare and special operations, and the implications of 
autonomous weapons systems. 


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CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • LEGISLATIVE SUPPORTTO CONGRESS 


DOMESTIC SOCIAL POLICY 


The Affordable Care Act. Congress continued to oversee 
the implementation of the Patient Protection and 
Affordable Care Act (PL. 111-148, as amended) at 
both the federal and state level and also considered 
and enacted amendments to the law. CRS assisted 
lawmakers by providing overviews of the law’s 
provisions; analysis of relevant federal regulations; 
and guidance pertaining to private insurance, public 
programs including the Medicaid expansion, and health 
care delivery issues. Experts provided assistance on 
implementation of the Act, such as the evolving status 
of the health insurance exchanges, including trends 
in health plan participation, premiums, and narrow 
provider networks; analysis of legislative proposals that 
would amend, repeal, or defund the Act, including 
repeal of provisions through the budget reconciliation 
process; and analysis of topics ranging from the Act’s 
risk mitigation programs to the law’s potential impact 
on competition in the health insurance industry. CRS 
attorneys responded to numerous legal questions 
regarding the Act. 

Child Nutrition Programs. Congress called on CRS as it 
sought to reauthorize child nutrition programs, including 
the National School Lunch Program and certain other 
institutional food service programs, and the Special 
Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, 
and Children, which were last reauthorized in 2010, with 
some provisions having expired in 2015. As the House 
and Senate marked up their FY2016 reauthorization 
bills, CRS prepared background and analysis, reviewed 
draft legislation, and assisted in developing and 
considering amendments. Once markup occurred, 

CRS helped legislators understand the proposed policy 
changes, convened seminars, and reported on the 
potential impact of the 2010 law’s expiration, the House 
and Senate bills, and related Congressional Budget 
Office cost estimates. 


Child Welfare. Child welfare reforms discussed in 
Congress during the past year and proposed in the 
Family First Prevention Services Act (H.R. 5456/S. 
3065) would restrict federal support for foster children 
placed in group settings while also authorizing new 
federal support for services to children and their 
families to prevent children’s entry or reentry into foster 
care. CRS facilitated congressional understanding of 
current policy and assisted lawmakers as they developed 
legislative proposals to address the appropriateness of 
group care settings and the availability of family settings 
for foster children. 

CriminalJustice and Sentencing Reform. Over the 
past year, to address the growth in the federal prison 
population, Congress weighed legislation to lower 
the number of inmates in federal prisons by allowing 
reductions in mandatory minimum penalties for 
some criminal offenses; retroactive application of 
the provisions of the Fair Sentencing Act of 2010 
(PL. 111-220); giving courts sentencing flexibility 
in some instances; and facilitating early release of 
certain prisoners. CRS provided background on the 
legislation, offered analysis of the potential effects of the 
proposed reforms, and outlined issues for policymakers 
to consider as they marked up and debated bills on 
these issues. CRS attorneys addressed the use of force 
by law enforcement, the scope of federal gun laws, 
constitutional jurisprudence regarding the right to keep 
and bear arms, and the federal government’s use of 
terrorist databases and the No Fly List. 

Federal Pensions for Select Groups. Congress considered 
a number of policy proposals related to civilian federal 
pensions for specific populations, including federal law 
enforcement officers and related personnel, military 
service members, U.S. Postal Service employees, 
and air traffic controllers at the Federal Aviation 
Administration. Relevant provisions were included 


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in the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2016 (P.L. 
114-113); the National Defense Authorization Act 
for FY2016 (P.L. 114-92); the FAA Extension, Safety, 
and Security Act of 2016 (P.L. 114-190); and several 
bills introduced in the House. CRS analyzed legislative 
proposals, compared these proposals to current law, 
conducted in-person consultations, and provided 
support for congressional hearings. 

The “Gig Economy. ” Responding to congressional 
interest in the labor market implications of the “gig 
economy” (the collection of markets that match 
providers to consumers on a gig, or job, basis in 
support of on-demand commerce), CRS analysts and 
attorneys prepared a report on an issue for which sparse 
information is available. The report addressed the size 
and characteristics of the gig workforce, compared its 
participants with more traditional freelance workers, 
and identified implications of the gig economy 
for labor standards and livelihoods more generally. 

The report also discussed judicial consideration of 
employment-related claims of gig workers and focused 
on the classification of gig economy workers (i.e., 
as independent contractors or employees), which is 
relevant under federal employment laws and is an 
issue of interest for Congress. CRS also provided 
consultations on worker protections for gig workers and 
the potential for the gig economy to create new work 
opportunities for economically vulnerable populations. 

Juvenile Justice. State policy is preeminent in juvenile 
justice; however, the federal government significantly 
influences state policies through grant funding. 
Congress last reauthorized the Juvenile Justice and 
Delinquency Prevention Act (P.L. 93-415), the major 
vehicle for these funds, in 2002. Both the House and 
Senate worked on legislation that would modify and 
reauthorize some of the Act’s programs. As Members 
debated core mandates to attach to grant funding as 
well as purpose areas of grant programs, CRS provided 
added value by discussing how these changes may affect 
states and the youth they aim to serve. 


Mental Health Reform. As both chambers considered 
legislation to reform mental health care in the United 
States, CRS provided insights into all aspects of 
mental health care, including Medicaid financing of 
mental health services, development of the mental 
health workforce, adoption of health information 
technology by mental health providers, support for 
mental health research, and structuring of grants to 
fund community-based mental health services. CRS 
summarized, analyzed, and compared different versions 
of bills as they moved through the legislative process. 

Occupational Safety and Health. During FY2016, 
the Occupational Safety and Health Administration 
(OSHA) promulgated new standards regulating 
respirable crystalline silica in the workplace. These 
new standards were the result of more than 40 years of 
regulatory activity, but proved controversial in Congress 
and were the subject of hearings and legislation. CRS 
experts provided Congress with information on the 
new standards and their history as well as on possible 
legislative responses. Analysts summarized the issues 
surrounding the regulation of respirable crystalline 
silica in the workplace as well as ongoing legislative 
and judicial activity. Lawmakers expressed concern 
over OSHA’s use of a standard interpretation rather 
than rulemaking to change the types of retail facilities 
exempt from the process safety management that 
regulates the use of certain highly hazardous chemicals 
in the workplace. CRS kept Congress informed on 
this issue as it evolved, including possible legislative 
responses and information about ongoing litigation 
challenging OSH As actions. 

Older Americans Act. Programs offering nutritional 
and support services authorized under the Older 
Americans Act (P.L. 89-73) can assist older Americans 
to maintain their independence and remain active in 
their communities. CRS worked closely with Congress 
to pass the Older Americans Act Reauthorization Act 
of 2016 (P.L. 114-144). In support of these efforts, 

CRS experts prepared simulations to model the 


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distributional effects of proposed changes to several 
of the original Act’s grant allocation formulas. CRS 
experts also provided technical and analytical support 
on appropriations and funding issues. 

Opioid Abuse. Congress held hearings and considered bills 
to address the epidemic of heroin and other opioid abuse, 
culminating in the enactment of the Comprehensive 
Addiction and Recovery Act of 2016 (P.L. 114-198). 

CRS supported every stage of the legislative process, 
from reviewing draft bills and developing policy options 
to clarifying differences between the House and Senate 
bills and supporting work on appropriations for the 
Act’s programs. CRS helped Congress understand how 
various federal agencies involved in combating the opioid 
epidemic interact with one another and with states and 
other entities. CRS also offered expertise in criminal 
justice and health policy to help Congress approach the 
opioid epidemic from different perspectives. 

Overtime Pay. In 2016 the Department of Labor 
published a final rule that updates the Fair Labor 
Standards Act (P.L. 75-718) overtime rule, more than 
doubling the overtime salary threshold and making many 
workers newly eligible for overtime pay. CRS explained 
the overtime pay rule and other provisions of the Act, put 
the proposed update in the context of previous updates, 
and clarified who potentially would be affected by the 
updated rule. Congress called on CRS to evaluate the 
methodological approach the Department of Labor used 
to calculate the rate of increase in the overtime salary 
threshold and to examine the credibility of third-party 
assessments of the potential effects of the update on 
wages, jobs, industries, and employer behavior. 

Pharmaceutical Drug Coverage and Spending. 

Congress held multiple hearings during the past year 
on prescription drug price increases, competition in the 
pharmaceutical industry, and strategies for controlling 
escalating prescription drug spending in Medicare, 
Medicaid, and other federal health care programs. CRS 
supported congressional investigations in the recent price 


increases of certain existing and new medications. CRS 
analysts reviewed the pharmaceutical distribution system, 
drug spending in both the private and public sectors, 
changes in coverage and reimbursement by private and 
public health care payers, and mechanisms to control 
spending. Analysts and attorneys offered technical and 
other assistance for hearings on the state of competition 
in the pharmacy and pharmacy benefit manager markets 
and pharmaceutical manufacturer mergers. 

Research and Development of New Medical Treatments. 
CRS continued to support the work of the 114th 
Congress on medical innovation legislation. The House 
enacted the 21st Century Cures Act in 2015 (H.R. 6), 
which included numerous provisions to accelerate the 
discovery and approval of new pharmaceutical drugs, 
biological products, and medical devices, primarily 
through reforms to the National Institutes of Health 
and the Food and Drug Administration. This year, 
in response, the Senate worked toward the goal of 
combining numerous smaller bills into a single package. 
CRS analysts examined the Senate bills in the context 
of current federal law, regulatory policy, and agency 
guidance, and compared them to the House-enacted 
legislation. Analysts also supported Congress regarding 
the legal, policy, and budgetary implications of the 
medical innovation legislation. 

Social Security. Individuals entitled to a Social Security 
retired- or disabled-worker benefit who also receive 
a pension from work not covered by Social Security 
are subject to Social Security’s Windfall Elimination 
Provision, where an individual’s Social Security benefit is 
calculated based on an alternative formula, resulting in a 
lower initial monthly benefit. The Windfall Elimination 
Provision has been of long-standing interest to Congress, 
particularly with respect to evaluating the fairness of 
the reduction based on this formula. In 2016 Congress 
focused attention on the Equal Treatment of Public 
Servants Act of 2015 (H.R. 711), which would provide a 
different formula. CRS provided support for committee 
markup of the legislation, responded to numerous 


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requests, and explained this complex feature of the Social 
Security program and how the proposed legislation 
would alter current law. 

Technology and Law Enforcement. Congress renewed 
its interest in the opportunities and challenges that 
evolving technology has presented for U.S. law 
enforcement, highlighted in part by a recent court 
battle between the Department of Justice and Apple 
Inc. regarding access to an iPhone used by a shooter 
in the San Bernardino, California, terrorist attack. In 
providing hearing support and legislative analysis, CRS 
experts presented a holistic view of the “going dark” 
debate over the degree to which technological change 
has outpaced law enforcement investigative capabilities, 
particularly as it has related to encryption on devices 
such as the iPhone. CRS analysts informed Congress 
about existing law enforcement tools to conduct 
investigations and how the changing technology 
landscape may impact investigators’work. 


Veterans Benefits. Congress continued to look for 
ways to improve the care and benefits for veterans as 
well as improve accountability at the Department of 
Veterans Affairs (VA). CRS analysts responded to 
inquiries regarding the recommendations and legislative 
proposals in several congressionally mandated reports, 
including assessing the potential impact of reorganizing 
the Veterans Health Administration. CRS analysts 
and attorneys offered technical assistance on bills to 
consolidate the VA’s community care programs and 
to address veteran pain management needs. CRS 
addressed legal and policy issues regarding expedited 
removal and demotion authorities, and due process 
protection of VA employees. Other assistance included 
a report on Confederate flag policies in federal 
cemeteries and responses to constituent requests 
related to VA service delivery needs in health care, 
employment, education, housing, and social services. 


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CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • LEGISLATIVE SUPPORTTO CONGRESS 


GOVERNMENT AND THE ECONOMY 


Appropriations. CRS continued to maintain an 
interdivisional team of analysts responsible for 
producing the annual appropriations reports and for 
responding to cross-cutting appropriation requests. 

The team was also responsible for maintaining and 
updating a popular CRS product, the Appropriations 
Status Table, to increase its usefulness to congressional 
clients. Analysts continued to build a database of 
appropriations legislative actions going back to the 
mid-1970s. This unique database will provide CRS with 
the ability to more quickly and more authoritatively 
respond to congressional needs. CRS also provided 
a range of different products related to the regular 
appropriations bills throughout the fiscal year. 

The Budget , Debt , and Deficit. CRS provided a wide 
range of analyses related to fiscal policy and the 
budgetary implications of legislation throughout the 
year. CRS supported Congress during its budget 
deliberations for FY2016 and FY2017 to provide 
discretionary funding for those years. CRS helped 
Congress address broader budgetary policy issues, 
such as the appropriate fiscal trajectory of the federal 
government, changes in the composition and structure 
of federal outlays and revenues, and trends in recent 
and projected net interest payments. Concerns about 
rising debt levels led Congress to enact the Budget 
Control Act of 2011 (P.L. 112-25), which re-imposed 
statutory caps on discretionary spending and required 
an ongoing sequestration of certain mandatory 
spending programs. CRS helped Congress understand 
how the Act affects budgetary tradeoffs as well as 
the effects of subsequent legislative modifications of 
the Act. CRS monitored trends in federal credit, the 
collection of fines and fees, and trust fund finances. 

In late 2015 Congress chose to suspend the federal 
debt limit until March 2017. CRS experts provided 
historical context and analysis of federal debt policy 
and the consequences of allowing the debt limit to 
constrain Treasury operations. CRS also analyzed how 


federal deficits affect economic performance and the 
implications of current fiscal policies on the long-term 
sustainability of federal finances. 

Budget Process. CRS assisted Congress in its 
examination and use of the process for considering 
budgetary matters. The most salient of this work 
involved the impact of budget control mechanisms, 
such as the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 (P.L. 
114-74), on the consideration of budgetary legislation, 
especially on appropriations bills in the absence of a 
budget resolution. Analysts assisted with procedures 
associated with development and consideration of the 
reconciliation bill enacted by Congress. In collaboration 
with colleagues across the Service, they provided 
analysis of appropriations floor amendments and 
options with regard to continuing resolutions. In the 
context of a number of the authorization bills that 
the House and Senate considered, as well as existing 
authorizations that expired, CRS analysts provided 
information on the budget process, constraints on 
new authorization provisions, and implications of the 
expired provisions. At the request of Members from 
both chambers, CRS offered seminars and briefings 
on the budget process and assisted Congress with 
proposals to change the rules that govern consideration 
of budgetary legislation. 

Congressional Administration. CRS analysts, information 
professionals, and legislative attorneys continued to 
provide support to Congress on the administration and 
management of Member offices and other institutions 
within the legislative branch. Throughout FY2016 CRS 
research focused on congressional mass communications 
and mailings; commemorative works in the District 
of Columbia; technology development in Congress; 
and staffing issues including congressional tenure and 
Member and staff pay. Analysts briefed Congress on 
administrative processes, Members’representational 
allowance, Senators’ official personnel and office 


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CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • LEGISLATIVE SUPPORTTO CONGRESS 


expense account, government information creation 
and dissemination, and casework. CRS addressed 
congressional ethics, lobbying issues, congressional 
advisory commissions, training of congressional staff 
and interns, ensuring Capitol Hill and district office 
security, travel policy and costs, legislative branch 
agency appointments, and congressional nominations 
to service academies. CRS attorneys examined the 
activities of federal agencies, including analyzing 
circumstances in which agencies bypass the notice- 
and-comment rulemaking requirements and the status 
of administrative law judges and circumstances when 
agencies are required to use them for adjudication. 

Constitutional Issues and Separation of Powers. 

CRS responded to congressional interest in the 
potential use of an Article V convention to propose 
amendments to the Constitution, including a new 
report focusing on the most recent developments 
on this issue. CRS also provided research on various 
aspects of the Electoral College method of electing 
the President, such as major policy options available 
to Congress within the existing Electoral College 
system, kept Congress informed concerning various 
contingencies associated with presidential elections, and 
consulted with Members on the role of Congress in the 
separation of powers system. 

Emergency Management. CRS analysts worked closely 
with Congress on national preparedness, disaster 
response and recovery, and mitigation issues throughout 
the fiscal year. CRS assistance in FY2016 particularly 
focused on providing support to Members whose 
districts and states were affected by the Zika virus; 
the Flint, Michigan, water contamination; Hurricane 
Matthew; and various wildfire and flooding events. 

CRS fielded questions related to FEMA disaster 
declarations, cost-shares, and preliminary damage 
assessments; public assistance; individual and household 
assistance; the National Flood Insurance Program; and 
the impact of the Budget Control Act on the provision 
of federal funding for disasters. 


Executive Branch Organization. CRS provided 
assistance through in-person briefings, consultations, 
and written products as Congress developed plans and 
proposed revisions to executive branch organization, 
such as reassigning statutory functions, altering agency 
leadership arrangements, and otherwise rearranging the 
federal bureaucracy. The efforts included background 
research and analysis of proposals to abolish agencies 
and functions and to reduce the size of the federal 
government. CRS analyzed and commented on 
alternative approaches to interagency coordination 
of policymaking and implementation in areas such 
as national security and homeland security. CRS also 
provided research assistance on the refinement of 
proposals to create national commissions and similar 
study panels for examining a variety of policy issues and 
developments in the executive branch. 

Federal Grants Management. Congress expressed interest 
in several aspects of grants management, including 
identifying and preventing waste, fraud, and abuse; 
resolving unobligated balances in expired grant accounts; 
pre- and post-award oversight; transparency; and the 
design and inherent mechanics of specific federal grants. 
CRS prepared new CRS products on federal grant 
financial reporting requirements and databases and on 
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block 
grant legislation. CRS analysts produced a new short 
video describing the federal grants process. They helped 
develop ideas and conceptualize strategies for improving 
the performance and oversight of federal grants. These 
ongoing activities resulted in CRS providing numerous 
consultations, reviews of draft legislation, and memoranda 
that were used during hearings and as the basis for 
developing legislation. CRS also played a significant role 
in shaping provisions in several introduced bills that were 
reported out of committee on these issues. 

Federal Pay and Personnel. Congress demonstrated broad 
and sustained interest in issues related to management 
and administration of the federal workforce. CRS 
supported lawmakers on the various appointment 


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authorities, position classification standards, and 
qualification requirements for selected positions; federal 
pay schedules; pay adjustment processes; locality pay 
adjustments over time; freeze on pay rates; critical pay 
authority; and performance incentives and other types 
of rewards. CRS analysts covered issues including 
the workforce characteristics of selected departments 
and agencies; policies governing furloughs, reductions 
in force, and other statutory authorities to shape 
the size and composition of the civilian workforce; 
hiring flexibilities and removal procedures; the Senior 
Executive Service; telework; policies and expenditures 
by executive agencies on conferences; and various 
approaches for recruiting and retaining an effective 
information technology and cybersecurity workforce. 

Federal Reserve and Monetary Policy. The Federal 
Reserve gained additional regulatory authority over 
large financial firms in the Dodd-Frank Act (P.L. 
111-203). Many of the Federal Reserve actions, in 
both monetary policy and financial regulation, have 
been controversial. CRS supported Congress in its 
oversight role, as when the chair of the Federal Reserve 
is required to testify semi-annually, as well as when 
the House enacted comprehensive Federal Reserve 
reform legislation. CRS addressed specific hearings and 
markups and prepared and maintained a portfolio of 
written products analyzing issues related to monetary 
policy and the Federal Reserve actions. 

Firearm Regulation. CRS provided lawmakers with 
analysis summarizing congressional action on proposals 
that were considered in the wake of the December 
2015 San Bernardino, California, terrorist attack and 
the June 2016 Orlando, Florida, nightclub shooting. 
Some of those proposals addressed gun background 
checks, terrorist watch lists and mental incompetency. 
Analysts supported Congress on gun control-related 
legislative riders to appropriations bills and continued 
to build the CRS extensive database related to mass 
shooting incidents and research on gun-related crime 
and suicides. 


Government Information Policy. Congress consulted 
with CRS on numerous occasions regarding access 
to and protection of government information. The 
Service produced and updated a range of reports on 
government information policy and practices, including 
reports on legal access to federal records and the 
collection and retention of presidential records. CRS 
analysts answered requests seeking data on Freedom of 
Information Act (FOIA) processing and policies and on 
the creation and operations of the federal government’s 
more than 1,000 federal advisory committees that 
provide an opportunity for the public to participate in 
the policymaking process. CRS responded to requests 
regarding requirements placed on agencies to ensure 
the appropriate collection and retention of all records, 
including those created by electronic means. CRS also 
provided a series of briefings addressing policy options 
for the design of transparent advisory committees 
and assisted with hearings related to proper records 
collection and the administration of FOIA. 

Government Procurement. Congressional interest in 
government procurement spanned a variety of issues 
and topics. Small business contracting and programs, 
domestic preference legislation and statutes (such as 
the Buy American Act, P.L. 92-428), sourcing policy, 
project labor agreements, strategic sourcing, and 
suspension and debarment were among the procurement 
subjects of interest. Using the federal government’s 
procurement database, CRS employed a multidisciplinary 
approach, drawing upon policy and legal expertise 
to analyze draft or existing legislation and to assist 
with hearings. CRS attorneys addressed legal issues 
concerning the Supreme Court’s hearing of a challenge 
to the Veterans Administration’s implementation of a 
statute that provides for the VA to “set aside” certain 
contracts for competition in which only service-disabled 
or veteran-owned small businesses can compete. 

CRS provided legal expertise on several executive 
orders, including one to bar federal contractors from 
discrimination on the basis of “sexual orientation” or 
“gender identity.” 


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CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • LEGISLATIVE SUPPORTTO CONGRESS 



Inspectors General. Members consulted with CRS on 
numerous occasions seeking a variety of information 
related to inspectors general (IG), including the 
appropriation and staffing levels provided to IG offices, the 
law enforcement authorities provided to IG investigative 
employees, and the ability of IGs to access the information 
they need to perform their oversight duties. 

The Judiciary. CRS supported the Senate as it addressed 
issues related to the selection and confirmation for the 
current vacancy on the Supreme Court, as well as for 
vacancies for lower federal court judgeships. A CRS 
team of analysts and information professionals continued 
to track judicial nominations using the CRS internal 
judicial nominations database. The database helps ensure 
that CRS can quickly respond to congressional inquiries 
about the status of current and past judicial nominations 
as well as provide a variety of statistics and accompanying 
analysis related to the judicial appointment process. 

CRS also provided analysis of issues related to judicial 
administration, such as the caseloads of various courts 
and appropriations levels for the judiciary. 

Legislative Branch Appropriations. CRS continued 
to provide research and information on the annual 
legislative branch appropriations acts. This work 


included analysis of challenges in estimating the cost 
of individual congressional activities; comparison 
of legislative branch and total discretionary budget 
authority; analysis of the timing of the consideration of 
the appropriations bills; examination of staffing levels 
and policies; and investigation of subjects related to 
legislative branch appropriations, including structure, 
cost of various programs, history, and funding. CRS also 
consulted with Congress about the relevant components 
of a continuing resolution. 

Postal Service. Congress regularly sought assistance 
from CRS on a broad range of postal issues. Members 
traditionally have taken interest in the operations of 
the U.S. Postal Service, including the number of days 
of mail delivery, services provided, and facilities. The 
Postal Service’s financial difficulties and concurrent 
cost-cutting and proposed service reductions have 
heightened congressional interest in postal policy 
and the role the U.S. Postal Service might play in 
the 21st century. CRS provided briefings on postal 
issues, assisted with hearings support, and addressed 
disparate postal issues, including post office closures, 
postal finances, employee pensions and health care, and 
pending postal reform legislation. 

Security Clearances and Background Investigations. 
Following the data breaches involving background 
investigation information from databases of the Office 
of Personnel Management, Congress sought assistance 
from CRS on a range of issues related to the protection 
of government information and the impact of the data 
breaches on federal employees. Congress continued 
to seek assistance from CRS related to ongoing 
developments in security clearance procedures and 
insider threat programs that are being implemented, 
in part, in response to the unauthorized disclosure of 
classified information by vetted federal employees and 
contractors. CRS analysts and legislative attorneys 
provided assistance through in-person briefings and a 
variety of written products on security clearances and 
background investigations. 


22 








CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • LEGISLATIVE SUPPORT TO CONGRESS 


RESOURCES, INDUSTRY, AND THE ENVIRONMENT 


Agriculture and Free Trade Agreements. CRS conducted 
numerous in-person consultations with Congress to 
keep Members abreast of the status of the agriculture- 
related elements of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) 
free trade agreement and the Trans-Atlantic Trade and 
Investment Partnership (T-TIP), which together could 
facilitate sales of U.S. farm products to approximately 
1 billion consumers. CRS experts analyzed a range 
of controversial agricultural issues under negotiation, 
including sensitive U.S.-EU agricultural trade issues, 
and responded to specific inquiries. As the Obama 
Administration pressed forward with its policy of 
establishing more normal relations with Cuba, Congress 
expressed greater interest in policies that impede U.S. 
agricultural exports. CRS responded by examining key 
issues in farm trade with Cuba. 

Climate Change — Paris Agreement and EPA’s Clean 
Power Plan. CRS supported Congress throughout 
the year in its efforts to address greenhouse gases 
linked to climate change, particularly the Obama 
Administration’s initiatives, including emissions 
standards for automobiles, greenhouse gas limits on 
new power plants, and the “Paris Agreement” within 
the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate 
Change. Perhaps the most controversial Obama 
Administration initiative was EPA’s Clean Power Plan 
to control carbon dioxide emissions from existing power 
plants. After the rule was finalized in late 2015, many 
regulated industries and some states challenged the 
rule in court. The Supreme Court imposed a stay on 
the EPA’s regulations while challenges to the rule work 
through the litigation process. CRS experts assisted 
Congress on a myriad of questions and concerns 
regarding technology, economics, law, and policy. 

Droughts and Floods. Recurrent drought and periodic 
flooding challenge water resource managers and affect 
the management of federal infrastructure and related 
resources. Drought continued to be an issue for Congress, 


particularly in response to conditions in California and 
the Southwest. Drought forced federal water supply 
facilities to reduce and in some cases suspend water 
deliveries to long-term contractors. Some communities’ 
wells have run dry. Dry conditions have also resulted 
in extreme wildfires. Throughout FY2016 CRS experts 
reported on drought conditions and analyzed legislative 
proposals to address drought, including through informal 
conference negotiations. CRS also held numerous 
in-person consultations and workshops on drought 
response and the effects of altering drought policy. CRS 
experts assisted Congress with questions related to flood 
damage reduction projects in response to flooding from 
rivers and hurricane impacts. 

Electric Utilities. In the past year CRS provided 
Congress with analysis of major issues facing the electric 
utility sector focusing on implications of environmental 
regulations (particularly the EPA’s Clean Power Plan 
and ozone rules), industry infrastructure concerns, fuel 
prices, reliability, physical security, and cybersecurity. 

CRS analysts provided support and analysis both in 
anticipation of congressional needs and in responding to 
congressional requests. CRS provided ongoing support as 
hearings were held and legislation marked up on electric 
industry regulation and security as part of larger energy 
bills and as stand-alone legislation. 

Energy Infrastructure. Energy infrastructure has 
increased in importance and interest to Congress, 
primarily in considering the safety, security, and 
condition of infrastructure, environmental concerns, 
and future requirements. Energy infrastructure includes 
natural gas and petroleum pipelines, electric generation 
and transmission, and storage facilities. CRS supported 
Congress by placing local issues into a national context; 
providing insight on evolving incidents, local protests, 
and litigation; and assessing new technologies designed 
to alleviate the existing problems with infrastructure. 
CRS experts collaborated to ensure all views were 


23 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • LEGISLATIVE SUPPORTTO CONGRESS 


analyzed in response to congressional requests, including 
providing support for House and Senate committees, 
caucuses, and coalitions. 

Genetically Engineered Food Labeling. For some years 
various consumer groups have sought mandatory labeling 
of all genetically engineered foods, arguing that U.S. 
consumers should have an opportunity to see all relevant 
information on a label in making food choices. The 
biotechnology industry and many food processors have 
opposed compulsory labeling, contending that consumers 
could interpret genetically engineered food labels as 
warning labels implying that the foods are less safe or less 
nutritious than conventional foods. Congress ultimately 
passed legislation in July 2016 that preempts state 
labeling laws and authorizes mandatory “disclosure” of 
all genetically engineered foods under U.S. Department 
of Agriculture administration. Throughout House and 
Senate committee proceedings over labeling legislation 
CRS provided analysis and in-person consultation on the 
potential implications of the various bills for consumers 
and food manufacturers and offered technical analysis of 
proposed bill language, while also assisting Members in 
the development of floor amendments. 

Homeland Security. CRS analysts supported a wide 
range of congressional activities regarding reorganization 
of the science-related offices within the Department of 
Homeland Security. CRS support included questions 
for hearings, lists of potential witnesses, and follow-up 
consultations. CRS experts also provided objective, 
timely reviews of executive branch and industry 
programs and activities in this area. 

Legislation to Reform the 1976 Toxic Substances Control 
Act. For the first time since it was enacted in 1976, 
the Toxic Substances Control Act (P.L. 94-469) was 
significantly amended when President Obama signed 
into law the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for 
the 21st Century Act (P.L. 114-182). This was the first 
major environmental law reauthorized by Congress since 
the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990. Amendments 
to the Toxic Substances Control Act require a systematic 


review of the safety of chemicals currently in commerce, 
address long-term management and storage of elemental 
mercury, and provide the federal authority to investigate 
potential cancer clusters. CRS analysts and attorneys 
supported Congress throughout the reauthorization 
process as Members addressed core provisions of the law 
and developed legislative proposals. The issues debated 
by Congress, and analyzed by CRS, involved science, 
chemical testing, law, economics and international trade, 
regulatory policy, and federalism. 

National Park Service. As the National Park Service 
celebrated its centennial anniversary, the 114th Congress 
moved on broad legislation to address funding challenges 
faced by the agency, including a $12 billion backlog of 
deferred maintenance. Despite agency efforts to address 
this maintenance through improved inventory and 
asset management, the backlog has continued to build 
during the past decade. CRS provided close support 
as lawmakers crafted broad legislation that advanced 
to conference during the year, including provisions to 
revise existing authorities and establish new authorities 
for fees, donations, and other funding and management 
mechanisms to address the agency’s needs. 

Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing. The 
Obama Administration’s development of its five-year 
offshore oil and gas leasing program for 2017-2022 
was also of interest to lawmakers in FY2016.This 
comprehensive plan set Administration policy for oil 
and gas leasing in the Gulf of Mexico, Arctic, Atlantic, 
and Pacific Ocean regions for the next five years. 
Congress was interested in the Administration’s plans 
for several lease sales in the Arctic, where opportunities 
for oil and gas development could expand with the 
reduction of the amount of ice in the sea during summer. 
Congress also closely followed the Administration’s 
decision to remove from the program an earlier-planned 
lease sale in the Atlantic Ocean, where leasing has not 
occurred since the 1980s. CRS assisted Congress as 
it worked on oversight and legislation concerning the 
five-year program, consulted with Congress on relevant 
issues, and helped with hearing preparation. 


24 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • LEGISLATIVE SUPPORTTO CONGRESS 


Patent Policy and Innovation. In FY2016 congressional 
interest extended to the protection of new technological 
innovation and intellectual property rights. CRS policy 
specialists analyzed patent reform legislation that may 
potentially change the current patent protection regime. 
CRS also undertook ongoing research and analysis in 
the areas of intellectual property and pharmaceuticals as 
well as exploration of alternative policy approaches and 
legislative options. 

Provision of Television Content. The future of television 
emerged as a major congressional issue in FY2016.The 
television industry is regulated by a combination of 
communications and copyright laws, which define the 
rights and obligations of television stations and networks, 
cable and satellite program distributors, online video 
distributors, and the owners of the video content. The 
financial structure of the television industry is under 
stress as more viewers watch video programming over 
the Internet at times of their choosing rather than tuning 
into a specific station at a specific time. Many of the laws 
governing the industry predate the wide availability of 
broadband Internet service and do not reflect current 
technological realities. These long-simmering issues 
erupted this year after the Federal Communications 
Commission proposed regulatory changes to increase 
competition in the market for set-top cable boxes. CRS 
analysts and attorneys assisted Members of Congress in 
understanding the complex issues involved. 

Surface Transportation. Surface transportation was 
of concern to Congress during FY2016, as the law 
authorizing federal highway and public transportation 
programs was extended into the start of the fiscal 
year. Federal taxes dedicated to these programs do not 
generate sufficient revenue to support the current level of 
spending. CRS provided extensive support on financing 
issues, automotive safety, and railroad issues. 

Technology Policy and Competitiveness. The ability 
of U.S. industry, national laboratories, and other 
stakeholders to provide innovative science and 
technology breakthroughs in a global economy 



continued to be a focus for Congress. CRS analysts 
supported efforts in both chambers to reauthorize 
the Small Business Innovation Research program by 
providing qualitative and quantitative analysis of federal 
agencies’ set-aside requirements. As Congress examined 
the role of the federal government in supporting 
science, engineering, and mathematics education, CRS 
experts provided research, analysis, consultation, and 
background testimony. 

U.S. Oil and Gas Exports. FY2016 marked major 
milestones in the U.S. oil and natural gas sectors with 
unrestricted exports of crude oil and exports of natural 
gas in liquefied form. The Consolidated Appropriations 
Act of 2016 (P.L. 114-113) lifted a 40-year restriction 
on crude oil exports. In February 2016 the first natural 
gas liquefaction facility in the continental United States 
began operation. Many more facilities are expected to 
supply international markets over the next few years. 

On these issues CRS analysts provided testimony, held 
seminars, produced a variety of written products, and 
responded with in-person and telephone consultations. 


25 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • LEGISLATIVE SUPPORTTO CONGRESS 


LAW AND JUSTICE 


Antitrust Law. Congressional interest in the state of 
competition across various industries in the economy 
increased in the past year. CRS attorneys assisted 
Congress regarding the potential application of the 
antitrust laws to developments in the U.S. economy, 
including describing and analyzing the process and 
standards by which the Federal Trade Commission 
and the Department of Justice review proposed 
transactions between companies. Attorneys also briefed 
lawmakers on issues such as potential mergers between 
cable and Internet service providers, the application 
of the antitrust laws to drug manufacturers, and 
anticompetitive concerns regarding conditions placed 
on music streaming companies. 

Civil Rights. CRS attorneys addressed a broad 
range of civil rights issues, including questions about 
discrimination on the basis of gender identity. They 
analyzed legal developments in response to state laws 
and Department of Education guidance on transgender 
individuals’ access to shared facilities and provided 
legal guidance related to sex discrimination and sexual 
violence at institutions of higher education. They 
supported the debate on legislative efforts to strengthen 
pay discrimination laws and provided legal analysis 
regarding a Supreme Court ruling on affirmative action. 

Civil Service Reform. Congress called on CRS as it 
addressed a number of legal issues concerning reform of 
the civil service, such as the firing of Senior Executive 
Service employees at the Veterans Administration 
and placing final decision-making authority in the 
hands of administrative judges at the Merit Systems 
Protection Board. Attorneys prepared legal analysis of 
the circumstances in which agencies can fire employees 
for suspected criminal conduct and examined reform of 
whistleblower protections at various federal agencies. 

Congressional Oversight. CRS attorneys provided 
written legal analyses and conducted numerous briefings 
and presentations to assist Congress in its investigative 


and oversight functions. Work included analysis of the 
legal principles governing the standing of Members of 
Congress to bring lawsuits to challenge executive branch 
actions and subpoena noncompliance. They assisted 
committees in their investigative functions by providing 
insight into legal questions of authority, jurisdiction, 
and the ability of Congress to compel testimony and 
documents from potential witnesses. CRS also assisted 
with expert testimony on impeachment arising from a 
congressional investigation into activities of the Internal 
Revenue Service. 

Election Law. Election law was a significant focus for 
Congress in FY2016. CRS addressed redistricting, 
voting, and campaign finance and related issues. 
Attorneys analyzed how the results of a presidential 
election can be contested, independent bids for 
president, the constitutionality and legality under 
the Voting Rights Act (P.L. 89-110) of voter photo 
identification laws, and pending and decided Supreme 
Court cases on redistricting. 

Government Ethics. CRS legal experts presented two 
seminars on ethics, one on legal ethics in general and the 
other on congressional ethics. They continued to provide 
in-person briefings and report on the statutes and 
rules that guard against ethical missteps in the areas of 
campaign financing, lobbying, and conflicts of interest. 

Intellectual Property. Congress has a perennial interest 
in considering whether the copyright and patent laws 
are furthering or hindering the U.S. innovation economy. 
CRS addressed copyright licenses and software-enabled 
electronic devices and recent Supreme Court decisions 
involving enhanced damages in patent law litigation 
and administrative patent revocation proceedings. CRS 
consulted with Congress on music copyright licensing 
issues and related legislative proposals and assisted 
lawmakers as they considered patent law issues related to 
the price of pharmaceutical drugs and patent litigation 
reform legislation. 


26 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • LEGISLATIVE SUPPORTTO CONGRESS 



Labor and Employment Law. CRS attorneys reported 
on labor and employment law, including the child 
labor provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act (RL. 
75-718); the Department of Labor’s new overtime 
and fiduciary rules; the treatment of student athletes 
under the National Labor Relations Act (29 U.S.C. 
151-169); Browning-Ferris Industries of California, the 
National Labor Relations Board’s 2015 decision on joint 
employers; Gobeille v. Liberty Mutual Insurance Company , 
the Supreme Court’s recent decision on preemption; and 
the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (P.L. 
93-406). Attorneys also responded to legal questions 
involving collective bargaining, employee benefits, and 
the Fair Labor Standards Act minimum wage and 
overtime requirements. 

Tax Law. Because of the 2016 election cycle, 

Congress was interested in the ability of tax-exempt 
organizations to engage in campaign activity under 
the Internal Revenue Code. CRS attorneys assisted 
Congress as it considered legislation limiting the 
ability of IRS to take certain actions with respect 
to Section 501(c)(4) organizations. Attorneys also 
consulted with and briefed lawmakers on constitutional 
and other legal issues surrounding state taxation 


of Internet sales and related legislative proposals. 

CRS also supported Congress on controversial legal 
developments in international taxation, including 
proposed regulations of IRS addressing related-party 
debt, the implementation of the Foreign Account 
Tax Compliance Act (P.L. 111-147), and transactions 
known as corporate inversions. 

Trade Law. Congress turned to CRS legal experts as it 
conducted oversight of the executive branch’s negotiation 
of the proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) free 
trade agreement. Lawmakers sought information on 
how investor-state dispute settlement provisions in 
the TPP might impact the ability of the federal and 
state governments to protect public health and the 
environment. Congress requested a legal analysis of the 
scope of U.S. obligations under the environment and 
labor chapters of the TPP. Attorneys outlined domestic 
content restrictions on government contracting and 
their interplay with U.S. trade obligations. Following 
President Obama’s relaxation of some restrictions on 
trade with Cuba, CRS attorneys and analysts examined 
the president’s authority to make changes in the Cuba 
sanctions program and on resolutions of pending 
trademark disputes. 


27 












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M anagement developed initiatives in FY2016 to optimize workflow, streamline 

operations and services, and enhance efficiency. Specifically, these efforts included 
continuing work on the CRS strategic plan, initiation of a client satisfaction survey, upgrading 
the congressional request management software, enhancements to CRS.gov and Congress.gov, 
a pilot to explore greater efficiencies by aligning information professionals with research 
divisions, a review of CRS policies, two new CRS work products, and planning for the 
New Member Seminar for the 115th Congress. 


29 




CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • MANAGEMENT INITIATIVES 


STRATEGIC PLANNING 


CRS continued its strategic planning initiative by developing an operations plan to complement the CRS strategic 
plan. The operations plan is a detailed plan for accomplishing the goals and objectives in the strategic plan. It identifies 
activities and milestones, timeframes, dependencies, and resources. It is used to define, manage, and track work that 
is aligned with the goals and objectives in the strategic plan. A process was established for reporting on the plan on a 
quarterly basis and for updating the plan on an annual basis or more frequently if necessary. 

As part of the CRS strategic planning initiative, the CRS Director commissioned a 360-degree assessment of the Office 
of Information Management and Technology. The assessment focused on three key areas: communication, performance, 
and staffing. The assessment resulted in ten recommendations that were grouped in the areas of organizational 
change, governance and business practices, and mission information technology (IT) versus commodity IT. Work on 
implementing the recommendations is ongoing. The CRS Director also launched an assessment of the supporting 
infrastructure offices in CRS. This assessment is focused on organization functions, structures, processes, and efficiencies. 


CONGRESSIONAL CLIENT SATISFACTION SURVEY 


At the direction of the House Committee on Appropriations, the Library of Congress commissioned an 
independent survey (H.R. 114-110) regarding the products and services provided to Congress by the Library, and 
especially the Congressional Research Service. CRS led this project on behalf of the Library, and ensured that a 
comprehensive final report was delivered to the committee in conformance with a rigorous time schedule. The project 
provided a rare opportunity to survey Members and their staff systematically regarding their diverse range of needs 
essential to fulfilling their legislative and representative responsibilities. The survey yielded responses from more than 
1,300 staff and 63 Members. 

The results showed a strong appreciation and need for the dedicated services CRS provides to Congress. 

Congressional staff rated CRS very highly on its core values, including confidentiality, nonpartisanship, and objectivity. 
Respondents expressed a strong need for a broad range of analytical products and services from CRS. Reflecting the 
recurrent, trusted working relationships between congressional staff and CRS analysts, respondents rated consultative 
services such as direct telephone and email responses from CRS analysts, in-person briefings, and personalized 
memoranda very high for their effectiveness. The survey also yielded important insights about new products and 
services that would be of value to Congress. The report serves as an important resource to inform decisions about 
optimizing the delivery of services to an evolving Congress during a time of constrained resources. 


CONGRESS.GOV ACCOMPLISHMENTS 


As part of the Library’s multi-departmental team, CRS contributed to continuing development and daily operations 
of the next-generation legislative information system platform and services, Congress.gov. Through a multi-year 
Library-wide strategy, Congress.gov will replace two legacy legislative information systems (LIS and THOMAS) 
with a single, modern system. CRS provided data analysis, subject matter expertise, consultation, system testing, user 
testing, coordination of data partner relationships, and support for congressional users and data partners. The Service 
also continues to support the use of the Congress-only LIS until equivalent capability is fully developed for the new 


30 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • MANAGEMENT INITIATIVES 



Congress.gov. Accomplishments in FY2016 included the deployment of LlS-like quick searches for each of the 
Congress.gov cohections, the initial implementation of an LlS-like advanced search, as weh as other functionality and 
data that enabled the retirement of the THOMAS web interface. 


MERCURY UPGRADE 


CRS successfully deployed new customer relationship management (CRM) software in FY2016 to store, manage, 
and analyze requests from congressional clients. The system is known as “Mercury.”The upgrade was undertaken to 
enhance security and to enable more timely upgrades. While the new system reflects current business processes, the 
upgrade was complex and required documentation and retraining staff on a new user interface. This upgrade, and the 
completion of an archiving feature for the repository of congressional requests, enhanced information security and was 
responsive to a key priority and concern of congressional oversight committees and leadership offices. 


POLICY REVIEW 


The review and dissemination of CRS policies and guidelines by the Policy Working Group continued in FY2016. 
Policies and guidelines were drafted, revised, and amended to help ensure that employees are informed about the rules 
that govern CRS products and services for Congress as weh as ethics and professional responsibilities and to decrease 
the risk that CRS core values will be eroded. The working group is headed by the Counselor to the Director and 
includes first-line supervisors from ah CRS research divisions and infrastructure offices. 


THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: 
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 

The Constitution of the United States of America: Analysis and Interpretation (popularly known as the Constitution 
Annotated or CONAN), is an official Senate document that is statutorily required and contains legal analysis and 
interpretation conducted by CRS attorneys of the Constitution based primarily on Supreme Court case law. CONAN 
serves Members of Congress and their staff, as weh as the general public, including practicing attorneys and others 
interested in learning about the Supreme Court and the nation’s founding document. CONAN addresses the meaning 
of each constitutional provision and can be especiahy useful when researching the constitutional implications of 
specific issues or topics. Fohowing CONAN’s 100th anniversary celebration on September 23,2014, CRS completed 
a comprehensive independent review of the content, organization, methodology, and presentation of the published 
versions of this legal reference document. 


31 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • MANAGEMENT INITIATIVES 


U.S. MILITARY CASUALTY STATISTICS: 

Post Traumatic Sirass Dinrder. Traumatic Brain Injuries, 
Amputations, and Other Casualties 



EXECUTIVE AGREEMENTS: 

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The fiscal year’s efforts provided a strong foundation not only for the multi-year effort ahead to revise all of the 
existing CONAN content (more than 2,500 pages), but also for the initiation of the technology work required for the 
design, development, and future implementation of a new CONAN website in collaboration with the Library. 


CRS WEBSITE IMPROVEMENTS 


CRS redesigned parts of CRS.gov, the CRS website for Congress, into a series of new pages intended to make 
CRS products easier for congressional staff to discover and use. The new Issue Area Pages more closely mirror the 
issue portfolios found in congressional offices, rather than adhering to CRS’s internal categorization. They are also 
designed to actively promote the full range of CRS products and services for Congress. The implementation of the 
new pages represents a milestone in CRS website enhancement following the implementation of the initial CRS 
enterprise taxonomy. 

INFORMATION PROFESSIONALS (IP) PILOT 

In March 2016, CRS began piloting a strategy to explore whether greater efficiency and coordination could be 
achieved in providing information research and services to Congress. As part of the pilot, research librarians in the 
Knowledge Services Group (KSG) moved directly into two research divisions to better align with the work of analysts 
and meet the divisions’ research priorities and requirements. Other information professionals were assigned to work in 
KSG’s Reference and Information Services Section to focus on information, collections, and knowledge management, 
and enable more efficient access to critical information. The results of the pilot will be assessed in FY2017. 


INFOGRAPHICS 


A new infographic product became available for the first time on the CRS website in FY2016. Infographics are 
intended to present complex information without the need for an accompanying written product. These standalone 
infographics are distinguishable from the tables, graphs, and other image-based content commonly embedded in CRS 
written products and supplement those products’ text-based analyses. The use of infographics to convey information 
and analysis has been recognized as a desirable way to communicate complex information. Topics of infographics 
include “U.S. Military Casualty Statistics,”“Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) and U.S. Trade Agreements,” 
“Executive Agreements,” and “Economic Effects of the FY2014 Shutdown.” 


32 


















CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • MANAGEMENT INITIATIVES 



INTERACTIVE MAPS 


Geospatial analysis and mapping products illustrate complex public policy data, which can lead to improved 
understanding of multidimensional public policy issues. During the past fiscal year, CRS completed 173 GIS-related 
requests on issues of interest to Congress, such as Zika occurrences worldwide, oil and gas pipelines in the United 
States and worldwide, migration of unaccompanied minors from Central America to the United States, and state 
minimum wages. CRS actively engaged in defining requirements and in testing the Library of Congress Geospatial 
Hosting Environment (GHE).The GHE’s Staff GIS Portal was used to develop interactive maps and test review 
procedures to ensure they meet CRS standards for objectivity and authoritativeness. 


TECHNOLOGY ENHANCEMENTS 


During the annual power shutdown of the Madison building, CRS successfully conducted a close down and 
restart, or “fail over,” for all CRS applications to the Alternate Computing Facility and maintained full operational 
capability for CRS users. This is the first time the fail over has occurred of all Tier I systems with full capability 
during a power shutdown. The successful fail over is the culmination of several years of architectural and 
engineering enhancements to the CRS Common Operating Environment from a single-site environment to a 
high-availability multisite implementation. 

CRS also implemented several enhanced capabilities across the organization including enabling CRS users to 
attach large files or sets of files over the standard 20 MB limit to email messages; upgrading from Exchange 2007 
to Exchange 2013, which allows CRS to provide enhanced capabilities and features with future planned updates to 
office computers; and installation of SMART boards, which enable staff members to collaborate and interact with 
electronic content. 


NEW MEMBER SEMINAR 


CRS planned the New Member Seminar, which was held at the start of the 115th Congress. Hosted in cooperation 
with the U.S. House of Representatives, the program, “Legislative Issues and Procedures: The CRS Seminar for New 
Members,” is held in Williamsburg, Virginia. CRS worked with the Committee on House Administration to select 
topics and speakers most useful to newly elected Members and continued planning and logistical activities to help 
ensure a successful seminar. Grant funding was secured to cover the cost of the event (see Appendix A). 

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CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • MANAGEMENT INITIATIVES 



SUPPORT FOR CRS STAFF 


CRS continued to offer research staff a core writing curriculum twice a year. Experienced CRS colleagues provided 
staff with guidance, tools, and best practices for writing reports and other CRS products. These sessions offered 
a practical orientation to CRS writing and engaged participants in thoughtful discussions about creating quality 
products for Congress. Writing sessions included an overview of CRS products and services, the writing process, and 
review of editorial policy. Originally conceived as a writing presentations series for new hires, these sessions have 
become a permanent offering open to all staff. 

Research assistants (RAs) have been essential additions to CRS staff for several years. The RA position was designed 
to assist analysts in responding to congressional requests by producing graphics, tables, and other components of 
products; collecting, organizing, and analyzing data; and conducting various other research support duties. The first 
11 RA hires were brought on board within three research divisions in late FY2014 and early FY2015. These RAs 
were hired into not to exceed three-year appointments, both to facilitate a regular influx of fresh talent and to provide 
budgetary flexibility. It was anticipated that some of the research assistants would pursue other opportunities aligned 
with their career trajectories. By the end of FY2016 seven of the initially hired RAs had left CRS. The four remaining 
RAs from the initial cohort have been joined by newly recruited colleagues who continue to enhance the capability of 
CRS to respond with agility to congressional requests. 

In FY2016, CRS continued to focus on fortifying the supervisory workforce to meet new and evolving demands, while 
sustaining quality service in support of the Congress. CRS identified initial leadership training courses to develop 
critical supervisory competencies: coaching, problem solving, and communication. As a result of two successful years, 
70% of first-line managers have completed this training. 


34 














CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


A. FY 2016 BUDGET, RESOURCES, AND OTHER FUNDING 


During FY2016 CRS managed $106.94 million in appropriated funds and secured $678,000 in grants from five 
nonprofit foundations. CRS presented seminars for Members of Congress and their staff with supplemental funding 
from nonprofit foundations, including the Democracy Fund, William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, Henry Luce 
Foundation, Catherine D. and John T. MacArthur Foundation, and The Pew Charitable Trusts. Of the grant funds 
secured in FY2016, $360,000 was budgeted for the “Legislative Issues and Procedures: The CRS Seminar for New 
Members,” scheduled to occur at the start of the 115th Congress. In addition, CRS grant funds allowed CRS to lead 
24 supplemental events during the year. 


Grant funds supported the “Issues and Policy Seminar: 
114th Congress Second Session.” This all-day program 
provided congressional staff with an objective and 
nonpartisan overview of the most pertinent issues 
facing the 114th Congress and a forum to discuss 
those issues in a confidential setting with legislative 
colleagues and CRS experts. 

Funding also supported a Member-only dinner 
discussion, “Changes in the Media & Congressional 
Decision Making.”The event featured John Dickerson, 
host of Face the Nation, and Amy Walter, national editor 
of The Cook Political Report. Discussions at this event 
included changes in media coverage and what that has 
meant for Congress and the political environment. 

CRS presented a number of grant-supported seminars as 
part of two thematic series. 

The “Master the Legislative Process” series for senior 
staff used recent floor examples to examine how rules and 
procedure impact legislative outcomes: 

* “Senate Floor Procedure in Practice” 

* “House Floor Procedure in Practice” (offered twice) 

* “Resolving Differences Between the House and 
Senate.” 

The “Implications of a Changing Global Order” series 
provided analysis and insight into how the global order is 
changing and its implications for Congress. Three of the 
six seminars were held in both House and Senate office 
buildings to make it easier for staff to attend: 


* “The Changing Global Order — Transitioning to 
a New Paradigm?” (held in both chambers) 

* “Radical Transformation in the Middle East: 
Navigating the Crises” (held in both chambers) 

* “The Changing Contours of the Global Economy” 

* “Global Humanitarian and Displacement Crises: 
Challenges and Opportunities” 

* “The Future of Europe” 

* “Understanding the ‘New’ Geopolitics of Asia” 
(held in both chambers). 

Other grant-funded seminars and briefings included: 

* “The Evolving Congress: Organizing for 
Legislative Business” 

* “Defense Acquisition Reform: From Goldwater- 
Nichols to Better Buying Power” 

* “FY2017 International Affairs Budget: Issues for 
Congress” 

* “Parliamentarian Process Briefing” 

* “Mental Health Reform” 

* “The ‘Going Dark’ Debate: Encryption and 
Evolving Technology” 

* “Congressional Summer Wildfire School” 

* “Wildfire Suppression Spending: Background, 
Issues, and Legislation in the 114th Congress” 

* “Anatomy of a Breach.” 


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CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


B. WORKFORCE MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT 


In FY2016 CRS organized and executed a robust workforce management program that focused on providing effective 
recruitment, training, and retention mechanisms for maintaining a high-quality workforce aimed at providing Congress 
with the best sources of information and analysis in the nation. Through a series of activities, CRS sustained and 
grew capacity and talent in specialized and targeted areas, strengthened staff competencies and expertise, facilitated 
responsible performance management, and demonstrated commitment to ensuring a diverse workforce. 


STAFFING AND SUCCESSION PLANNING 

CRS applied the Library’s merit selection and selective 
placement processes to fill its permanent and indefinite 
positions. For short-term and intermittent staffing 
requirements, CRS utilized a range of flexible and 
efficient hiring options or recruited volunteers. CRS 
continued to develop new positions to increase human 
capital capacity beyond what already exists, exemplified 
by a new statistician position in one of the CRS research 
divisions. Comprehensive recruitment plans enabled 
CRS to reach diverse pools of high-quality applicants. 

Merit Selection. CRS filled 55 positions through merit 
selection in FY2016: 43 permanent hires and 12 
indefinite appointees. Thirty-five of the permanent/ 
indefinite positions were filled with external candidates; 
the remaining 20 were filled through internal 
promotions or reassignments. Thirty of the permanent/ 
indefinite selectees were women (54%) and 15 were 
minorities (27%), including seven internal candidates 
who received promotions. The 43 permanent hires 
included five supervisory positions (four section heads 
and one section research manager). The remaining 38 
permanent hires included 13 policy analysts, seven 
information technology specialists, four information 
professionals, three legislative attorneys, two legislative 
information specialists, one program manager, one 
technical writer and editor, one visual information 
specialist, one legislative analyst, one budget analyst, 


one editor, one administrative coordinator, one public 
affairs coordinator, and one instructional design 
coordinator. Among the 12 indefinite appointments, 
six were research assistants, four were information 
technology specialists, one was a senior legislative 
analyst, and one was a coordinator of research planning. 

Short-term and Intermittent Staffing. CRS enhanced 
its short-term research staff capacity through a number 
of programs: 

* The Volunteer Internship Program. CRS placed 
49 volunteer interns, including 22 women (44%). 
Volunteer interns in the research divisions 
developed research skills by participating in 
ongoing CRS work. Eight of the interns had 
already obtained doctorate or other graduate 
degrees, while the remainder was pursuing either 
graduate or undergraduate degrees. The group was 
highly diverse: three women students were from the 
Model Secondary High School for the Deaf and 
one male student was from Gallaudet University. 

* The Law Clerk Program. Four law clerks were 
assigned to the American Law Division to develop 
their legal research and analytical skills. The clerks 
had completed at least two years of law school. 


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CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


* Volunteer CRS Retirees. Four retired CRS 
employees, including one woman, shared their 
collective expertise and institutional knowledge in 
public policy analysis in the research divisions. 

* Temporary Appointments. Seventeen employees 
were temporarily appointed to research divisions 
and infrastructure positions to meet short-term 
staffing requirements. Seven of the 17 temporary 
hires were women (41%). 

* Student Development Placement Programs. CRS 
placed two minority students from the Charles B. 
Rangel Graduate Fellowship Program. 

* Other Fellowships and Exchange Assignments. 
The Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division 
hosted five military officers, including two women, 
from the U.S. Air Force Fellows Program and one 
fellow from the U.S. Department of Agriculture. 
The Resources, Science, and Industry Division 
hosted one fellow from the Federal Aviation 
Administration. CRS continued to serve as a host 
agency for Presidential Management Fellows 
(PMF). Three fellows from executive branch 
agencies, including one woman, fulfilled their 
developmental experience requirements (typically 
four months) under the PMF program by serving 
rotations at CRS. 


Diversity Efforts. CRS launched the development 
of a corporate strategy to identify proactive steps to 
further foster a diverse and inclusive work environment. 
Staff members were invited to attend one of two 
brainstorming sessions as a way to solicit input aimed 
at enhancing the diversity and inclusion efforts of the 
Service. In April 2016 CRS senior leadership and 
supervisors participated in a colloquium, led by the 
Library’s Office of Opportunity, Inclusiveness, and 
Compliance, on discovering one’s unconscious biases. The 
same session was held for all CRS staff in May 2016. 

CRS continued to employ various outreach efforts 
to underrepresented groups to develop more diverse 
applicant pools for permanent and temporary positions 
and to develop stronger ties with diverse groups and 
organizations. As in previous years, CRS partnered with 
the Charles B. Rangel International Affairs Program, 
which resulted in the temporary placement of two 
Charles B. Rangel Scholars during summer 2016. 

CRS also utilized its long-standing student diversity 
internship program to introduce undergraduate and 
graduate students to the CRS mission and work. Twelve 
interns were placed throughout the Service to work on 
substantive research and projects. Two of the students 
were recruited from the Hispanic Association of 
Colleges and Universities National Internship Program. 


PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT 


The CRS performance management program 
focused on improving staff engagement and 
communication. The Service held activities to 
educate staff on requirements and processes related 
to performance management and to gather input to 
strengthen the program. CRS continued to support 
efforts that emphasized performance accountability 
and recognition. 


Performance Management Training. Recurring 
performance management training for staff continued 
to be a high priority in supporting mission success 
and professional development. CRS regularly held 
performance management training sessions for new 
supervisory and nonsupervisory staff to increase overall 
timeliness and compliance in performance plans and 
evaluations. Training sessions introduced the CRS 


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CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


performance management framework and explained 
the roles and responsibilities staff and supervisors 
have in facilitating effective and accountable employee 
performance. 

In addition to performance management training 
sessions for staff, the staff intranet site and supervisors’ 
web portal featured related articles and videos. 

Staff Recognition. CRS held its first Staff Appreciation 
Week. CRS professionals participated in several events, 
including Library of Congress Collection Tours for staff; 
an outing to a professional baseball game; and the annual 
Staff Appreciation Ceremony. The ceremony highlighted 
employee accomplishments and contributions throughout 
the year. In recognition of exceptional contributions in 
support of Congress and the CRS mission, the Director’s 
Award went to a four-member team rather than to an 
individual — a first in its 11-year history. 

Brainstorming Sessions. Brainstorming sessions were 
held with staff to identify peer-driven staff recognition 
opportunities which included staff acknowledging 


accomplishments of other staff members by providing 
them a personalized appreciation card for their work. 

Time-Off and On-the-Spot Awards. During the last 
two quarters of FY2016, CRS emphasized time-off and 
on-the-spot awards. CRS leaders granted a total of eight 
time-off and 49 on-the-spot awards (including group 
recommendations). The awards were presented to staff 
who demonstrated exceptional achievement beyond 
expected duties. 

Performance Management Ratings Analysis. CRS 
conducted an analysis of performance ratings across 
the Service during fiscal years 2013-2015. The analysis 
examined the five levels of performance ratings 
(outstanding, commendable, fully successful, minimally 
successful, unsuccessful), at the aggregate level, for all 
nonsupervisory staff GS-15 and below (bargaining 
and non-bargaining unit). During the three fiscal 
years examined, fully successful ratings averaged 40%, 
commendable ratings averaged 39%, and outstanding 
ratings averaged 21% CRS-wide. 


STAFF TRAINING AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT 


CRS provided a variety of professional development and 
training opportunities to strengthen staff performance 
and enhance competencies and expertise. Relying on a 
combination of in-house expertise and external resources, 
CRS tailored professional development and training 
activities to meet specific learning objectives and to allow 
for enriched, meaningful experiences. 

Leadership Development. The Service established 
a leadership development framework for first-line 
supervisors (GS-15 and below) to strengthen 
competencies in coaching, communication, and results- 
oriented problem solving. The courses were offered 
throughout FY2016, resulting in 70% of first-line 
managers completing this training. The Service plans to 


meet supervisory needs more closely by offering a set 
of advanced sessions to hone specific skills. 

Staff Professional Development. Staff professional 
development included the following: 

* Core Writing Curriculum. CRS continued to 
develop in-house and deliver to research staff a core 
curriculum in professional writing. Long-serving 
staff from across the Service, in a number of 
colloquia, provided analysts with guidance, tools, 
and best practices for effective analytical writing 
for congressional clients. These sessions enabled 
participants to engage in robust discussions about 
product quality and the writing process itself. 


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CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


Sessions covered the full range of CRS products 
and services; planning, coordinating, and drafting; 
and editorial and policy review. Originally conceived 
for new hires, these colloquia are now a permanent 
offering open to all staff and are scheduled biannually. 

* Mentoring Program. CRS continued its eight-year 
program of pairing new staff with experienced 
staff to help familiarize them with the CRS 
mission, operations, and culture. Mentees attended 
“Negotiating Congressional Requests” panel 
discussions to learn best practices in supporting 
Congress. Sixty-six mentors and mentees 
participated in the mentoring program. The 
program was expanded in FY2016 to include 
mentoring for existing staff. This expansion 
provided CRS professional staff an opportunity to 
partner with a manager to explore career goals, share 
knowledge, and network. This newest phase of the 
mentoring program was introduced in spring 2016, 
with 11 pairs of participants across the Service. 

STAFF RETENTION 

The overall FY2016 attrition rate in CRS was 6.4%, an 
increase from the FY2015 rate of 6.1%. The attrition 
rate among analysts and attorneys was 7.3%, up 1 
percentage point from the previous fiscal year. The 
attrition rate for information specialists (e.g., librarians) 
was 8.4%, up 2 percentage points from the previous 
fiscal year. 

Exit Interviews. Maintaining a low attrition rate is 
important for ensuring continuity of operations and 
meeting essential workforce requirements. To that 
end, CRS continued to use exit interviews as a tool to 
help measure employees’ overall satisfaction and work 
experiences and identify opportunities for improvement. 


• “Hot Topic” Discussions. CRS organized regular 
discussions to engage staff regarding important 
issues relative to their work or work environment. 
The discussions primarily focused on geographical 
information systems and tools used to develop 
maps to enrich the analysis and presentation of 
products. CRS also offered a new pilot of Excel 
classes from introductory to advanced skills. The 
Excel classes were well attended by CRS staff. 

* Special Assignments. CRS partnered with external 
organizations to provide a select number of CRS 
professional staff with short-term assignments 

in their respective issue areas and/or to support 
committee work in Congress. These assignments 
enhanced analysts’ ability to support the Congress 
by broadening their network of contacts to gain 
access to information and expand their expertise in 
specialized and distinct issue areas. 


For the fifth consecutive year CRS conducted voluntary 
exit interviews with employees who were separating 
from the Service. The exit interview participation rate 
for FY2016 was 52%. As was true for previous years, 
employees separating from CRS indicated they held the 
CRS mission in high regard and valued the collegial 
working environment. While holding true to its core 
values of nonpartisanship, objectivity, authoritativeness, 
and confidentiality, departing staff recommended that 
CRS remain nimble in order to meet congressional 
needs and expectations for products and services in the 
format and manner clients deemed most useful. Staff 
recommended CRS as a good place to work, especially 
for individuals who value an intellectual challenge. 


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CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


C. TYPES OF CRS SUPPORT TO CONGRESS: 
RESEARCH SERVICES AND PRODUCTS 


Throughout FY2016 CRS provided Congress with analysis, research, and information to support its policymaking 
needs in the formats described below. 


CONGRESSIONALLY DISTRIBUTED PRODUCTS PROVIDING RESEARCH 
AND ANALYSIS ON LEGISLATIVE ISSUES 


Reports for Congress. The Service prepares reports, 
analyses, and studies on specific policy issues of 
congressional legislative interest to address issues raised in 
numerous congressional inquiries. Reports clearly define 
issues in legislative contexts. The basic requirements of 
these and other CRS written products are relevance, 
authoritativeness, objectivity, and nonpartisanship. 

Analysts define and explain technical terms and concepts, 
frame the issues in understandable and timely contexts, 
and provide appropriate, accurate, and valid quantitative 
data. A summary appears on the first page of most reports. 
Shorter report formats include Fact Sheets, FAQs, In Brief 
products, and CRS Experts lists. CRS reports are available 
online to the congressional community. Active reports 
are updated as events occur for issues that are of ongoing 
interest to Congress and are archived when they no longer 
reflect the current legislative agenda. These archived 
products remain available to Congress (searchable) to 
provide background and historical context. 

CRS Short Products. As a result of congressional staff 
feedback, CRS introduced in the past few years several 


short products designed to meet client needs. These 
products include Legal Sidebars, which are brief legal 
analyses of current topics; CRS Insights, which provide 
brief information and analysis on policy issues; In 
Focus, two-page products that provide an overview of 
a topic area; Testimony, transcripts of testimony given 
by CRS staff; and Infographics, which are a graphical 
representation of CRS analysis. All of these CRS short 
products can be found on the CRS website. With these 
short products, CRS has made significant steps to make 
facts and analysis available to clients in clear, concise, 
easy-to-understand formats. 

Congressional Distribution Memoranda. The Service 
prepares these memoranda when the interest of a 
relatively small number of congressional readers is 
anticipated or when the transiency of the issue and 
the product make its inclusion as a listed CRS Report 
inappropriate. If an issue becomes important to a larger 
congressional audience, the product may be recast as a 
CRS Report for Congress. 


ELECTRONICALLY ACCESSIBLE PRODUCTS AND SERVICES 


CRS Website. Congressional clients use the CRS website 
to find a variety of products and resources, register 
for CRS seminars, place online requests, and stream 
video of CRS briefings and events. Reports and CRS 
short products are listed by issue area and are accessible 
through online searching. These include Legal Sidebars, 


Insights, In Focus, Infographics and Testimony. The site 
also contains guides to legislative procedures, resources 
for constituent services, and resources for working in a 
congressional office. A Twitter feature (CRS4Congress) 
showcases new CRS work on the home page. In addition 
to streaming video, clients use the site to order DVDs 


41 







CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


of seminars and briefings. Another feature is MyCRS, 
which allows clients to set up personalized accounts, 
subscribe to topics, receive notifications of updates to 
products associated with these topics, save searches, and 
Place a Request and Register for an Event with minimal 
data entry. The site also provides access and the ability 
to search The Constitution of the United States of America: 
Analysis and Interpretation (popularly known as the 
Constitution Annotated or CONAN).The CRS website 
is only accessible to House and Senate offices and other 
legislative branch agencies. 

Appropriations. CRS experts working on appropriations 
continued to provide comprehensive legislative analysis 
and tracking for the 12 regular Senate and House 
appropriation bills. In FY2016 CRS assisted Congress 
with continuing resolutions, supplemental, and the budget 

RESPONSES TO INDIVIDUAL MEMBERS 

The Service responds to requests for custom services 
from Members and committees and their staff. CRS 
analysts respond in the form of confidential policy 
and legal analyses, usually in memorandum format; 
consultations in person, by phone, or by email; and 
briefings on virtually all legislative and policy issues, each 
tailored to address specific questions directed to CRS by 
a requesting Member, committee, or their staff 

Confidential Memoranda. CRS prepares confidential 
memoranda to meet specific congressional requests. 

These memoranda are prepared for the use of the 
requester and are not distributed further unless the 
requester gives permission. This format is often used 
by CRS attorneys, for example, to respond to highly 
focused inquiries about the legal implications of statutory 
provisions, proposed legislation, or executive actions. 

Individual Staff Briefings. Individual or group staff 
briefings constitute another form of tailored response 
to congressional inquiries. CRS staff provides 
in-person briefings to Members and committees on 
specific policy issues. These briefings might focus on 


resolution. The Service also maintains and updates a CRS 
Appropriations Status Table for tracking legislation. 

On the Floor. On the Floor, a weekly compendium of 
CRS products relevant to scheduled or expected floor 
action in the House and Senate, is available on the 
CRS website and by email subscription to all Members, 
committees, subcommittees, and congressional staff All 
bills and related CRS products listed on this page are 
linked to the bills themselves on the Bill Summary and 
Status pages and to the products on the CRS website. 
On the Floor is updated throughout the week as needed. 

CRS Programs Electronic Mailing List. This email 
notification system provides subscribers with 
descriptions of upcoming CRS programs and links to 
online registration forms. 

AND COMMITTEES 

bills in formulation, foreign or domestic policy issues 
before Congress, the legislative process, congressional 
operations, or general orientations to CRS services 
and products. 

Telephone and Email Responses. Telephone and email 
responses to inquiries are a vital element in CRS 
interactions and consultations with Congress. CRS 
experts are directly accessible by phone or email; on a 
given day the Service provides numerous responses by 
phone and email, ranging from quick factual answers to 
briefings and interactive discussions. CRS goals in these 
instances are to provide expertise, ease of access, and 
personalized immediate response. 

Briefing Books. CRS may prepare briefing books for 
use by congressional delegations (CODELs) traveling 
abroad. These are collections of materials that support 
specific purposes of a congressional trip, and may include 
maps, selected products such as CRS reports, brief 
tailored written work on background and current issues 
regarding U.S. relations, and questions Members might 
ask when meeting with government and other officials. 


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CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


SEMINARS, INSTITUTES, AND OTHER PROGRAMS 


Seminars. CRS conducted numerous seminars for 
Members and staff on a wide variety of issues of interest 
to Congress. Highlights of the year included the 
following public policy seminars: 

* “Syria and Russian Intervention: Office Hours” 

* “Workers’ Compensation: Overview and Issues 
for Congress” 

* “Reaching the Debt Limit” 

* “Will the New Meaningful Use Rules for 
Electronic Health Records Promote Health 
Information Exchange and Improve Care?” 

* “An Overview of the Department of Labor’s 
Proposed Fiduciary Rule” 

* “Burma’s Parliamentary Elections” 

* “Mass Murder with Firearms” 

* “The Congressional Review Act” 

* “Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP): Roundtable 
Discussion” 

* “An Overview of the Family and Medical Leave Act” 

* “Cyber-Threat Actors: Overview and Considerations” 

* “Puerto Rico’s Fiscal Situation” 

* “Assessing Taiwan’s Presidential and Legislative 
Elections” 

* “Child Nutrition Reauthorization in 2016: 
Background and Legislative Activity” 

* “FY2017 Defense Budget: Issues for Congress” 

* “Defense Acquisitions Reform: From Goldwater- 
Nichols to Better Buying Power” 

* “FY2017 International Affairs Budget: Issues 
for Congress” 

* “Campaign Finance: Office Hours” 


* “Advancing Care Information: Changes Mandated 
by the Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive 
Program” 

* “FDA’s Regulation: What’s Next for E-Cigarettes, 
Cigars, and Other Tobacco Products?” 

* “Mental Health Reform” 

* “The ‘Going Dark’ Debate: Encryption and 
Evolving Technology” 

* “Federal and State Regulatory Authority over 
Pipeline Transportation of Natural Gas and 
Crude Oil” 

* “Understanding the Federal Budget” 

* “Recent Developments in U.S. PolicyToward Burma” 

* “Anatomy of a Breach” 

Issues and Policy Seminar. In March 2016, CRS hosted 
the “Issues and Policy Seminar: 114th Congress Second 
Session.”This all-day program included breakfast office 
hours with discussion topics including “Medicaid,” 

“House and Senate Procedures: Current Issues,”“The 
Federal Rulemaking Process and the Congressional 
Review Act,” “Budget Issues,” “Energy Prices,” “Mass 
Murder with Firearms,” “Puerto Rico,” and “Tax Policy”; 
a general session, “Justice Antonin Scalia’s Legacy and 
the Future of the Supreme Court”; breakout sessions on 
“Interacting Crises in the Middle East,” “Cybersecurity,” 
“Poverty,” “The Toxic Substances Control Act,” 
“International Trade,” and “Federal Regulation of 
Firearms”; as well as lunch tables hosted by presenters for 
the breakout sessions. 

CRS held a Members-only dinner, “Changes in the 
Media and Congressional Decision Making.”The 
program featured a panel with CBS News Face the 
Nation host John Dickerson and The Cook Political Report 
National Editor Amy Walter regarding how the media 
has changed and what that means for congressional 


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CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 



decision making, including the pace of Congress, 
the impact on partisanship, and the nature of public 
engagement. 

The Service also presented several public policy 
issues in a series of seminars. The “Implications of 
a Changing Global Order” series included eight 
sessions with topics including: “The Changing Global 
Order — Transitioning to a New Paradigm?,” “The 
Changing Contours of the Global Economy,” “Global 
Humanitarian and Displacement Crises: Challenges and 
Opportunities,” “Radical Transformation in the Middle 
East,” “The Future of Europe,” and “Understanding the 
‘New’Geopolitics of Asia.”The “Evolving Congress” 
series concluded with the seminars “iFinance: Financial 
Technology Innovation” and “Evolving Congress: 
Organizing for Legislative Business.” Additionally, 

CRS held a two-part series on wildfire policy, which 
included “Congressional Wildfire School” and “Wildfire 
Suppression Spending: Background, Issues, and 
Legislation in the 114th Congress.” 

Building on the legislative process institute legacy, 

CRS held the “Master the Legislative Process” series. 
These lunch-hour discussions on the legislative process 
used recent examples to illustrate the impact of rules 


and procedure on legislative outcomes. Geared toward 
experienced staff, the sessions sought to assist those 
who incorporate knowledge of procedures into their 
strategic legislative planning. Sessions included: “Senate 
Floor Procedure in Practice,” “House Floor Procedure in 
Practice,” and “Resolving Differences Between the House 
and Senate.” 

The TPP Roundtable Series covered issues before 
Congress related to the Trans-Pacific Partnership 
free trade agreement. Sessions included “Overview, 
Timeline, Geopolitical and Economic Impact”; 

“Tariffs, Rules of Origin, Autos, and Textiles/Apparel/ 
Footwear”; “Agriculture, Government Procurement, and 
State-Owned Enterprises”; “Intellectual Property Rights, 
Investment, Currency”; and “Services, Digital Trade, 
Labor, and Environment.” 

Legislative and Budget Process Institutes. CRS continued 
to provide legislative and budget process institutes. 
Congressional staff became acquainted with the practice 
of legislative procedures and the congressional budget 
process at a series of increasingly complex institutes 
held at regular intervals during the course of the year. In 
FY2016 CRS staff conducted 12 introductory institutes 
on legislative procedure and resources, including a session 


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CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


held in the CRS Senate Center. Three advanced legislative 
institutes were held for congressional staff and three 
advanced legislative process series were held for both the 
House and Senate. CRS staff conducted six introductory 
programs on legislative concepts in conjunction with 
the House Learning Center and held one in the Senate. 
Seminars on budget process, offered in 19 sessions, 
provided congressional staff with an integrated overview of 
how federal budgeting works as well as a more advanced 
look at separate aspects of the process. These seminars 
included a new August series that featured legislative 
and budget seminars to accommodate staff that preferred 
sessions to be scheduled over recess. The District Institutes, 
offered five times during FY2016, were specifically tailored 
to the needs of staff working in Members’ home state 
offices. In addition, in partnership with the Senate Office 
of Education and Training, CRS held Pre-Conference 
Institutes for Senate constituent services staff, state 
directors and state schedulers. 

Legal Programs. For nearly three decades CRS has 
offered continuing legal education credits through its 
Federal Law Update (FLU) series to Members and 
congressional staff. The program consists of 12 sessions 
offered over two weeks in both the spring and fall. CRS 
attorneys provide updates on important issues of law and 
policy directly related to the legislative agenda. Sessions 
included the following: 

* The 2015 Fall FLU held sessions from September 
29,2015, through October 8,2015: “Police Use 
of Force and Local Law Enforcement Reform”; 
“Music Licensing: Current Law, Litigation”; and 
“Pending Legislation; Developments in Chemicals 
Regulation and Hydraulic Fracking”; “Current 
Legal Issues in Food Labeling”; “Developments 
in the Law of Abortion and Reproductive 
Health”; “Civil Rights: Selected Legal Issues”; 
“International Law and the U.S. Legal System: 
Congress’s Role in Foreign Affairs”; and “Lawyers 
in Congress: Issues in Personal Responsibility for 
Congressional Counsel and Lobbyists.” 


* The 2016 Spring FLU conducted seminars 
from April 12,2016, through April 26,2016: 

“U.S. Supreme Court 2015 Term: Cases and 
Interpretation”; “Justice Antonin Scalia’s Legacy 
and the Future of the Supreme Court”; “Access to 
Digital Data: The Legal Debate over Government 
Surveillance and Encryption”; “Criminal Law and 
Procedure”; “Clean Power Plan and Clean Water 
Rule: Litigation Update”; “The Trans-Pacific 
Partnership Agreement: Labor and Environmental 
Obligations, Investor-State Dispute Settlement, 
and Other Legal Issues”; “Class Action Litigation: 
The Court and Congress”; “National Security Law 
Update: FISA Reform and Wartime Detainee 
Policy”; “Current Issues in Administrative Law”; 
“Legal Developments in Education: Affirmative 
Action, Sexual Violence, and Gender Identity”; 
“Election 2016: Redistricting, Voting, and 
Campaign Finance”; and “Election 2016: Political 
Corruption and Campaign Activity.” 

* The 2016 Fall FLU, held from September 13,2016, 
through September 22,2016, covered the following 
topics: “U.S. Supreme Court Review: Cases and 
Interpretation”; “Criminal Prosecutions Involving 
Classified Information”; “Second Amendment 
Post -Heller and Gun Legislation: Selected Legal 
Issues”; “Developments in International Tax Law”; 
“Defining Terrorism, Cyber Attacks, and Other 
Threats in the Digital Age”; “Current Issues in 
Intellectual Property Law”; “Beyond the Buy 
American Act: The Interplay of Domestic Content 
Restrictions with International Trade Regulations”; 
“Energy and Environment Legal Update: Nuclear 
Waste Management and Methane Emission 
Regulations”; “Limitations on Agency Structure 
and Makeup: Selected Legal Developments”; 
“Preemption and the Balance of State and Federal 
Authorities in Heavily Regulated Areas of Law”; 
“Statutory Interpretation: Lessons from the Most 
Recent Supreme Court Term”; and “Attorney-Client 
Privilege: Ethical Considerations for Attorneys.” 


45 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


Through close collaboration with the Law Library 
of Congress, CRS co-sponsored a series of programs 
for congressional staff on legal research. Topics 
included using print and electronic sources to conduct 
legislative history and statutory research, and a general 
introduction to legislative research. A new seminar, 
“Tracing Federal Regulations,” was added to the 
series, providing an introduction to federal regulations 
research. The Service held 22 programs during FY2016. 

Visiting Foreign Dignitaries. CRS supports 
establishing and expanding country-specific 
expertise and relationships. Toward this end, CRS 
staff held substantive meetings and exchanges with 
representatives from countries including Bahrain, 
Burma, Denmark, China, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Japan, 
Kazakhstan, South Korea, Nigeria, Russia, Sri Lanka, 
Sweden, Tunisia, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, and 
Vietnam, among others, and from institutions including 
the European Parliament and the United Nations. 

In addition, CRS supported delegations of visiting 
Members of Parliament and parliamentary staff for 
the House Democracy Partnership (HDP). Countries 
participating in the HDP during FY2016 were 
Burma, Colombia, Georgia, Indonesia, Kenya, Kosovo, 
Kyrgyzstan, Liberia, Macedonia, Pakistan, Peru, Sri 
Lanka, Taiwan, Timor-Leste, Tunisia, and Ukraine. 

OTHER SERVICES 

Multimedia Products and Services. CRS provided a 
variety of multimedia products and technical assistance 
in support of Congress. Videos of public policy and 
budget briefings, educational seminars, and special 
events were available on demand to congressional staff 
via the CRS website or DVD. The Service posted 39 
videos to its website, including short-format videos 
on aviation security and Internet gambling, reviews of 


Orientations and Briefings. CRS offered 14 programs 
to organizations that sponsored congressional 
fellows, including the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science, American Political Science 
Association, Congressional Black Caucus Foundation, 
Congressional Hispanic Caucus Institute, National 
Oceanic and Atmospheric Association, Charles B. 

Rangel International Affairs Program, Donald M. Payne 
International Development Fellowship Program, U.S. 
Army, U.S. Navy, and U.S. Marine Corps. Staff prepared 
introductory orientations on CRS services, legislative 
process, and policy-specific briefings. 

The Service conducted 26 orientations on CRS services 
for new congressional staff, 59 briefings for incoming 
congressional interns and volunteers, two sessions on new 
features of Congress.gov, and numerous other briefings 
for congressional offices and fellowship groups. 

Online Intern Orientation. CRS developed and launched 
an online version of its orientation program for interns 
and volunteers via its new learning content management 
system. After a successful system implementation, 
interns can take the course at their convenience from any 
computer within the Capitol Hill network. The online 
course features video, learning activities, and quizzes to 
support learning. 


the 2016 Supreme Court term, and a series, “Defense 
Acquisition and the Changing Global Order.” CRS also 
posted videos of ten sessions of the Federal Law Update 
and compiled 34 programs as DVDs. The Service 
also continued to provide two hours of television 
programming each weekday on the Senate closed- 
circuit television system. 


46 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


D. CRS ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE 


CRS has adopted an interdisciplinary and integrative approach as it responds to requests from Congress. The 
Service seeks to define complex issues in clear and understandable ways, identify basic causes of the problems under 
consideration, and highlight available policy choices and potential effects of action. CRS is organized into the 
following divisions and offices to support the analysis, research, and information needs of Congress. 


DIVISIONS 

American Law Division. The American Law Division 
provides Congress with legal analysis and information 
on the range of legal questions that emerge from the 
congressional agenda. Division attorneys work with 
federal, state, and international legal resources in support 
of the legislative, oversight, and representational needs 
of Members and committees of Congress. The division’s 
work involves the constitutional framework of separation 
of powers, individual rights, and federalism. The legal 
aspects of congressional practices and procedures and the 
myriad of questions of administrative law, constitutional 
law, and statutory interpretation, as well as more specific 
issues like criminal law, civil rights, environmental law, 
business and tax law, and international law, are also the 
subject of the division’s work for Congress. In addition, 
the division prepares The Constitution of the United States 
of America: Analysis and Interpretation (popularly known 
as the Constitution Annotated). 

Domestic Social Policy Division. The Domestic Social 
Policy Division offers Congress research and analysis 
in the broad area of domestic social policies and 
programs. Analysts use multiple disciplines in their 
research, including program and legislative expertise, 
quantitative methodologies, and economic analysis. Issue 
and legislative areas include education and training, 
health care and financing, Social Security, public and 
private pensions, welfare, nutrition assistance, housing, 
immigration, drug control, crime and criminal justice, 
labor and occupational safety, unemployment and 


workers’ compensation, and other issues related to 
children and families, persons with disabilities, the aged, 
the poor, and veterans. 

Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division. The 
Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division is 
organized into seven regional and functional sections 
that follow critical worldwide security, political, and 
economic developments for Congress. These include 
U.S. relations with individual countries, regional trends, 
and transnational issues such as terrorism, refugees, and 
other humanitarian crises, global health, nonproliferation, 
and global institutions such as the United Nations. 

The division also addresses U.S. foreign aid programs, 
strategies, resource allocations, State Department budget 
and functions, international debt, public diplomacy, and 
legislation on foreign relations. Research responsibilities 
include national security policy; military strategy; conflict 
dynamics; intelligence; U.S. and foreign weapons systems; 
military operations; defense acquisition; compensation, 
health, and social issues in the military; the defense 
budget; cybersecurity in defense and intelligence; and 
U.S. domestic and overseas military bases. The division 
examines key international economic developments and 
the roles and responsibilities of international financial 
institutions in addition to trade-related legislation, 
policies, programs, and U.S. trade performance and 
investment flows. Attention is also given to trade 
negotiations and agreements, export promotion, import 
regulations, and tariffs. 


47 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


Government and Finance Division. The Government 
and Finance Division’s work focuses on the organization, 
structure, operations, and management of Congress 
and its support agencies as well as the appropriations 
and legislative process and the congressional budget. 
Among the financial issues covered by the division are 
banking, financial institutions, insurance, mortgages 
and securities, as well as taxation, public finance, 
fiscal and monetary policy, and the public debt. 

Other research addresses the interaction between 
taxes and interest rates and macroeconomic policy. 

In addition, the division responds to requests on the 
organization, management, and funding of the federal 
executive and judicial branches, judicial and executive 
branch nominations, government personnel and the 
civil service, the presidency and vice presidency, and 
government information policy and privacy issues. The 
division is responsible for policy work in the areas of 
intergovernmental relations and forms of federal aid; 
federalism, statehood and U.S. territories; economic 
development, federal planning for and response to 
emergencies, disasters, and acts of terrorism in the 
United States; survey research and public opinion 
polls; the census; reapportionment and redistricting; 
elections; and campaign finance, lobbying, and political 
parties. Last, the division has begun to take a leading 
role in addressing congressional needs in the area of 
cybersecurity. 

RESEARCH SUPPORT 

Office of Congressional Information and Publishing. 

The Office of Congressional Information and 
Publishing facilitates and enhances congressional access 
to timely and authoritative legislative information and 
CRS public policy expertise. In close consultation with 
CRS authors, the office edits, provides graphics and 
production support for, and publishes CRS reports and 
related products. It organizes, analyzes, and publishes 
legislative information, including summaries of pending 
legislation, provided through the Congress.gov platform 
and the Legislative Information System (LIS). The 


Resources, Science, and Industry Division. The 
Resources, Science, and Industry Division covers an 
array of legislative issues for Congress involving natural 
resources and environmental management, science and 
technology, and industry and infrastructure. Resources 
work includes policy analysis on public lands, water, and 
other natural resources issues; environment; agriculture; 
food; fisheries; and energy. Science coverage includes 
policy analysis on general science and technology 
issues, civilian and military research and development, 
information technology and telecommunications, 
space, and earth sciences. Industry support issues 
include policy analysis on transportation and related 
infrastructure issues, industrial market structure and 
regulation, and sector-specific industry analysis. 

Knowledge Services Group. The Knowledge Services 
Group (KSG) staff responds to congressional requests 
and partners with CRS analysts and attorneys to 
provide authoritative and reliable information for 
Congress. KSG’s research librarians author descriptive 
products, contribute to analytical products, and support 
CRS analysts and Congress by finding solutions 
for their information needs. The KSG geographical 
information system (GIS) team provides geospatial 
analysis and mapping services. KSG staff also captures, 
organizes, and manages information and data to 
facilitate future use. 


office also works in partnership with other Library 
units, the Clerk of the House of Representatives, the 
Secretary of the Senate, the Government Publishing 
Office, and other legislative branch offices to ensure 
accurate, timely, and complete access to legislative 
information. The office develops innovative tools to 
improve the understanding of legislative documents, 
responds to congressional queries about the use and 
content of the legislative information systems, and 
maintains authoritative Member and staff data for the 
handling of research requests to CRS. 


48 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 



Office of the Counselor to the Director. The Office of 
the Counselor to the Director examines and defines 
the range of legal and policy questions and issues that 
arise from the operations of CRS, its relationship 
with Congress, other service units within the Library 
of Congress, and other legislative support agencies, 
and serves as the principal legal and policy advisor to 
the CRS Director, Deputy Director, and other senior 
management officials. The office is also responsible for 
formulating, negotiating, advising, and implementing 
policies and legal positions on matters that emerge from 
interactions between management and the CRS labor 
organization. Additionally, the office has responsibility 
for managing the receipt and assignment of congressional 
requests that come into the Service through the 
Congressional Services Section, providing authoritative 
guidance on policy questions involving sensitive or 
complex congressional requests, and supporting outreach 
to congressional clients. 

Office of Finance and Administration. The, Office of 
Finance and Administration manages the business 
operations of the Service, which entails directing 
finance and budget, procurement, facilities management, 
and administrative programs. This includes coordinating 
the internal control program, preparing the annual 
budget request, evaluating resource requirements, and 
formulating and executing the fiscal operating plan. The 
office performs all contracting and procurement actions, 


acquires and distributes research materials, and supports 
travel and training activities. It oversees administrative 
activities including payroll administration, property and 
workplace security, and space utilization. The office is 
the primary liaison for the Service’s interaction with 
the Library in performing supportive functions and 
other operations. 

Office of Information Management and Technology. The 
Office of Information Management and Technology 
establishes the information and technical capabilities 
required for CRS to provide research and analysis for 
Congress. This includes planning, procurement, project 
management, development, data management, operations, 
security, and maintenance of the information technology 
infrastructure and systems required to support the CRS 
mission. The office is also responsible for the overall CRS 
enterprise architecture, records management, archiving, 
taxonomy, and content management. 

Office of Workforce Management and Development. The 
Office of Workforce Management and Development 
oversees CRS human resources management capabilities. 
It provides a comprehensive package of services and 
programs designed to attract, develop, and retain quality 
talent to respond to the research and information 
needs of Congress. The office also serves as liaison and 
collaborates with the overall Library on strategic human 
resources issues and initiatives. 


49 








CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


E. CRS ORGANIZATIONAL CHART 




50 

























































CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


F. LISTING OF ALL SENIOR LEVEL POSITIONS BY TITLE, 
GRADE LEVEL, AND INCUMBENT AT THE BEGINNING 

AND END OF FY2016 


As of October 1,2015 

As of September 30, 2016 

Position 

Grade 

Incumbent 

Position 

Grade 

Incumbent 

Director, Congressional Research Service 

EX III 

Mary B. Mazanec 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Deputy Director, Congressional Research Service 

SL 

Colleen J. Shogan 1 

Same 

Same 

Terry J. Halstead 2 

Counselor to the Director, 

Office of the Counselor to the Director 

SL 

Lizanne D. Kelley 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Associate Director, Office of Congressional 
Information and Publishing 

SL 

Cliff Cohen 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Associate Director, Office of Finance and 
Administration and Senior Specialist in Social 
and Information Sciences 

SL 

Francois A. DiFolco 3 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Chief Information Officer, Office of Information 
Management and Technology 

SL 

Lisa M. Hoppis 

Same 

Same 

John E. Rutledge 4 

Associate Director, Office of Workforce 
Management and Development and Senior 
Specialist in Social and Information Sciences 

SL 

Monica M. Woods 

Same 

Same 

Francois A. DiFolco 3 

Assistant Director, American Law Division and 
Senior Specialist in American Public Law 

SL 

Karen J. Lewis 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Assistant Director, Domestic Social Policy Division 
and Senior Specialist in Social Legislation 

SL 

Laura B. Shrestha 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Assistant Director, Foreign Affairs, Defense, 
and Trade Division and Senior Specialist in 
International Policy 

SL 

Michael L. Moodie 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Assistant Director, Government and Finance 
Division and Senior Specialist in American 

National Government 

SL 

John R. Haskell 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Assistant Director, Knowledge Services Group and 
Senior Specialist in Social and Information Sciences 

SL 

Lillian W. Gassie 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Assistant Director, Resources, Science, and 

Industry Division and Senior Specialist in 
Environmental Policy 

SL 

John L. Moore 6 

Same 

Same 

Dana A. Shea 7 

Deputy Counselor to the Director, 

Office of the Counselor to the Director 

SL 

Rachel A. Bouman 

Same 

Same 

Vacant 8 

Deputy Assistant Director, American Law Division 
and Specialist in American Law 

SL 

Terry J. Halstead 

Same 

Same 

Andrew L. Nolan 9 

Deputy Assistant Director, Domestic Social Policy 
Division and Specialist in Social Legislation 

SL 

Richard J. Rimkunas 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Deputy Assistant Director, Foreign Affairs, Defense, 
and Trade Division and Specialist in Foreign Affairs 

SL 

Patrick A. Garvey 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Deputy Assistant Director, Government and 

Finance Division and Specialist in American 
National Government 

SL 

Pamela J. Jackson 

Same 

Same 

Steven R. Maguire 10 

Deputy Assistant Director, Knowledge Services 

SL 

Lisa B. Dove 

Same 

Same 

Julia Taylor 11 


Group and Senior Specialist in Social and 
Information Science 


51 





























CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


As of October 1,2015 As of September 30, 2016 


Position 

Grade 

Incumbent 

Position 

Grade 

Incumbent 

Deputy Assistant Director, Resources, Science, 
and Industry Division and Specialist 

SL 

Dana A. Shea 

Same 

Same 

Brent D. Yacobucci 12 

Senior Advisor to the Director, 

Office of the Director, and Senior Specialist 

SL 

Vacant 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Senior Advisor to the Director, 

Office of the Director, and Senior Specialist 

SL 

Vacant 

Same 

Same 

Jeremiah Gertler 13 

Senior Advisor to the Director, 

Office of the Director, and Senior Specialist 

SL 

Vacant 

Same 

Same 

Lisa M. Hoppis 14 

Senior Specialist in American National Government 

SL 

Robert J. Dilger 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Senior Specialist in American National Government 

SL 

Michael L. Koempel 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Senior Specialist in American National Government 

SL 

Walter J. Oleszek 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Senior Specialist in American Public Law 

SL 

Charles Doyle 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Senior Specialist in Economic Policy 

SL 

Jane G. Gravelle 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Senior Specialist in Science and Technology 

SL 

Eric A. Fischer 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Coordinator of Division Research and Specialist 

SL 

Larry M. Eig 

Same 

Same 

Vacant 15 

Coordinator of Division Research and Specialist 

SL 

Molly F. Sherlock 

Same 

Same 

Vacant 16 

Coordinator of Division Research and Specialist 

SL 

Karen Spar 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Coordinator of Division Research Planning 

SL 

Jeffrey Seifert 17 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Coordinator of Review and Specialist in Social and 
Information Sciences 

SL 

Robin D. Grove 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Specialist on the Congress 

SL 

Judy Schneider 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Specialist in Environmental Policy 

SL 

James E. McCarthy 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Specialist in Resources and Environmental Policy 

SL 

Claudia Copeland 

Same 

Same 

Same 


I Colleen J. Shogan reassigned to the National and International Outreach (NIO) service unit on 02/20/16. 

2 Terry J. Halstead appointed Deputy Director, Congressional Research Service on 02/21/16. 

3 Francois A. DiFolco temporarily appointed Associate Director, Office of Finance and Administration from 08/09/15 not to exceed 09/07/17. 

4 John E. Rudedge temporarily promoted to Chief Information Officer, Office of Information Management and Technology 
from 07/10/16 not to exceed 11/06/16. 

5 Monica M. Woods resigned on 07/30/16. Francois A. DiFolco temporarily acting as Associate Director, Office of Workforce Management 
and Development. 

6 John L. Moore retired 06/30/16. 

7 Dana A. Shea detailed to Assistant Director, Resources, Science, and Industry Division from 07/01/16 not to exceed 10/28/16. 

8 Rachel A. Bouman reassigned to the Office of the Librarian on 01/23/16. 

9 Michael Garcia temporarily promoted to Deputy Assistant Director, American Law Division from 04/03/16 to 07/31/16 
and Andrew L. Nolan from 08/07/16 not to exceed 12/04/16. 

10 Pamela J. Jackson reassigned to the Center of the Book, NIO on 06/11/16. Steven R. Maguire temporarily promoted to 
Deputy Assistant Director, Government and Finance Division from 06/12/16 not to exceed 10/09/16. 

II Lisa B. Dove retired 06/02/16. Julia Taylor temporarily promoted to Deputy Assistant Director, Knowledge Services Group 
from 06/12/16 not to exceed 10/09/16. 

12 Brent D. Yacobucci temporarily promoted to Deputy Assistant Director, Resources, Science, and Industry Division from 07/10/16 not to exceed 10/15/16. 

13 Jeremiah Gertler temporarily promoted to Senior Advisor to the Director, Office of the Director from 08/07/16 not to exceed 12/04/16. 

14 Lisa M. Hoppis detailed to Senior Advisor to the Director, Office of the Director from 07/05/16 not to exceed 12/31/16. 

15 Larry M. Eig retired 04/29/16. 

16 Molly F. Sherlock temporarily promoted to Coordinator of Division Research from 08/24/14 to 04/30/16. 

17 Jeffrey Seifert temporarily promoted to Coordinator of Division Research Planning from 05/01/16 not to exceed 04/30/18. 


52 



























CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


G. LISTING OF ALL SPECIALIST AND SENIOR SPECIALIST 
PERSONNEL ACTIONS IN FY2016 


Rachel A. Bouman reassigned to the Office of the 
Librarian on 01/23/16. 

Betsy Cody temporarily promoted to Senior Advisor to 
the Director, Office of the Director from 01/24/16 to 
05/21/16. 

Francois A. DiFolco temporarily appointed Associate 
Director, Office of Finance and Administration from 
08/09/15 not to exceed 09/07/17. Temporarily acting as 
Associate Director, Office of Workforce Management and 
Development. 

Lisa B. Dove retired on 06/02/16. 

Larry M. Eig retired on 04/29/16. 

Michael Garcia temporarily promoted to Deputy 
Assistant Director, American Law Division from 04/03/16 
to 07/31/16. 

Jeremiah Gertler temporarily promoted to Senior Advisor 
to the Director, Office of the Director from 08/07/16 not 
to exceed 12/04/16. 

Terry J. Halstead appointed to Deputy Director, 
Congressional Research Service on 02/21/16. 

Lisa M. Hoppis detailed to Senior Advisor to the 
Director, Office of the Director from 07/05/16 not to 
exceed 12/31/16. 

Pamela J. Jackson reassigned to the Center of the Book, 
National and International Outreach (NIO) service unit 
on 06/11/16. 


Steven R. Maguire temporarily promoted to Deputy 
Assistant Director, Government and Finance Division 
from 06/12/16 not to exceed 10/09/16. 

John L. Moore retired on 06/30/16. 

Andrew L. Nolan temporarily promoted to Deputy 
Assistant Director, American Law Division from 08/07/16 
not to exceed 12/04/16. 

John E. Rutledge temporarily promoted to Chief 
Information Officer, Office of Information Management 
and Technology from 07/10/16 not to exceed 11/06/16. 

Jeffrey Seifert temporarily promoted to Coordinator of 
Division Research Planning from 05/01/16 not to exceed 
04/30/18. 

Dana A. Shea detailed to Assistant Director, Resources, 
Science, and Industry Division from 07/01/16 not to 
exceed 10/28/16. 

Molly F. Sherlock temporarily promoted to Coordinator 
of Division Research from 08/24/14 to 04/30/16. 

Colleen J. Shogan reassigned to the NIO service unit on 
02/20/16. 

Julia Taylor temporarily promoted to Deputy Assistant 
Director, Knowledge Services Group from 06/12/16 not to 
exceed 10/09/16. 

Monica M. Woods resigned on 07/30/16. 

Brent D. Yacobucci temporarily promoted to Deputy 
Assistant Director, Resources, Science, and Industry 
Division from 07/10/16 not to exceed 10/15/16. 


H. LISTING OF ALL SENIOR LEVEL POSITION 
CHANGES IN FY2016 


There were no senior level position changes in FY2016. 







CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


I. NEW CRS PRODUCTS IN FY2016 


This appendix contains CRS written and web products prepared for the Congress in FY2016. The products are 
arranged alphabetically by selected categories and may appear in more than one category. This appendix does not 
include the many CRS products prepared at the specific request of individual Members of Congress. Congressional 
users can view the full text of these products by visiting the CRS website (www.crs.gov). 


AGRICULTURE 


Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2016 
Appropriations, by Jim Monke, Mark A. 
McMinimy, Randy Schnepf, Susan Thaul, Agata 
Dabrowska, Renee Johnson, Megan Stubbs, Randy 
Alison Aussenberg, Joel L. Greene, Tadlock Cowan 
and Rena S. Miller. 76 p. (R44240) 

Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2017 

Appropriations, by Jim Monke, Megan Stubbs, 
Tadlock Cowan, Rena S. Miller, Mark A. 
McMinimy, Joel L. Greene, Randy Schnepf, Renee 
Johnson, Agata Dabrowska and Randy Alison 
Aussenberg. 1 p. (R44588) 

Agriculture and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment 
Partnership (T-TIP) Negotiations, by Renee 
Johnson. 37 p. (R44564) 

American Agriculture and the Trans-Pacific Partnership 
(TPP) Agreement, by Mark A. McMinimy. 

14 p. (R44337) 

Big Data in U.S. Agriculture, by Megan Stubbs. 

14 p. (R44331) 

Catfish Inspection and S.J.Res. 28, by Joel L. Greene. 

2 p. (IN 10512) 

China’s Efforts to Address Ongoing Food Safety 
Concerns, by William A. Saturno and Renee 
Johnson. 2 p. (IF10465) 

The Commodity Credit Corporation: In Brief, by Megan 
Stubbs, lip. (R44606) 


Cottonseed as a Potential Farm Program Crop: 

What Are the Issues?, by Randy Schnepf. 3 p. 
(IN10451) 

County Agricultural Revenue Coverage (ARC) Payment 
Disparities: What Are the Issues?, by Randy 
Schnepf. 2 p. (IN10580) 

Dietary Guidelines for Americans: Frequently Asked 
Questions, by Agata Dabrowska. 17 p. (R44360) 

Efforts to Address the Safety of FDA-Regulated Food 
Imports, by Renee Johnson. 2 p. (IF10403) 

EU Agricultural Support: Overview and Comparison 
with the United States, by Randy Schnepf. 

28 p. (R44524) 

Financing U.S. Agricultural Exports to Cuba, by Mark A. 
McMinimy. 3 p. (INI0514) 

Fresh Beef Import Rules for Brazil and Argentina, 
by Joel L. Greene. 2 p. (IF10373) 

FY2016 Appropriations: Selected Federal Food Safety 
Agencies, by Renee Johnson. 10 p. (R44309) 

FY2017 Agriculture and Related Agencies 

Appropriations: In Brief, by Jim Monke. 12 p. 
(R44441) 

Genetically Engineered Mosquitoes: A Vector Control 
Technology for Reducing Zika Virus Transmission, 
by Tadlock Cowan. 2 p. (IF10401) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


54 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


Geographical Indications in the Transatlantic Trade and 
Investment Partnership (T-TIP) Negotiations, 
by Renee Johnson. 20 p. (R44556) 

GIPSA Rule Revived, by Joel L. Greene. 2 p. (IN10499) 

Global Food Security Act of 2016 (PL. 114-195), 
by Sonya Hammons. 2 p. (IF10475) 

Improving Child Nutrition Integrity and Access Act of 
2016: In Brief, by Randy Alison Aussenberg. 9 p. 
(R44373) 

Labeling Genetically Engineered Foods: Current 
Legislation, by Tadlock Cowan. 2 p. (IF10376) 

Legal Issues Associated with FDA Standards of Identity: 
In Brief, by Emily M. Lanza. 8 p. (R44393) 

Mosquitoes, Zika Virus, and Transmission Ecology, by 
Robert Esworthy, M. Lynne Corn and Tadlock 
Cowan. 2 p. (IF10353) 

The Obama Administration’s Feed the Future Initiative, 
by Randy Schnepf, Nicolas Cook and Marian L. 
Lawson. 32 p. (R44216) 

Policy Issues Involving Food Loss and Waste, by Renee 
Johnson. 2 p. (IF10317) 

Potential Use of Industrial Hemp in Cannabidiol 
Products, by Renee Johnson. 2 p. (IF10391) 


Revisiting U.S.-Mexico Sugar Agreements, by Mark A. 
McMinimy. 2 p. (IN10552) 

The Role of Local and Regional Food Systems in U.S. 
Farm Policy, by Renee Johnson. 41 p. (R44390) 

The TPP Agreement: What’s in It for U.S. Agriculture?, 
by Mark A. McMinimy. 2 p. (IF10301) 

TPP: Selected Impacts for U.S. Agriculture and Food 
Industries, by Mark A. McMinimy. 2 p. (IF10326) 

TPP: Taking the Measure of the Agreement for U.S. 

Agriculture, by Mark A. McMinimy. 2 p. (IF10412) 

The Trans-Pacific Partnership: In Brief, by Brock 
R. Williams, Ian F. Fergusson and Mark A. 
McMinimy. 13 p. (R44278) 

The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP): Key Provisions and 
Issues for Congress, by Brock R. Williams, Ian F. 
Fergusson, Michaela D. Platzer, James K. Jackson, 
M. Angeles Villarreal, Bill Canis, Rebecca M. 
Nelson, Gabriel M. Nelson, Shayerah Ilias Akhtar, 
Ben Dolven and Vivian C. Jones. 86 p. (R44489) 

Uniform Date Labeling of Food May Address Food 
Waste, by Renee Johnson. 2 p. (IF10398) 

USDA Initiative Is Funding New Ethanol Infrastructure, 
by Mark A. McMinimy. 2 p. (IF10377) 


APPROPRIATIONS AND BUDGET 


Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2016 
Appropriations, by Jim Monke, Mark A. 
McMinimy, Randy Schnepf, Susan Thaul, Agata 
Dabrowska, Renee Johnson, Megan Stubbs, Randy 
Alison Aussenberg, Joel L. Greene, Tadlock Cowan 
and Rena S. Miller. 76 p. (R44240) 

Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2017 

Appropriations, by Jim Monke, Megan Stubbs, 
Tadlock Cowan, Rena S. Miller, Mark A. 
McMinimy, Joel L. Greene, Randy Schnepf, Renee 
Johnson, Agata Dabrowska and Randy Alison 
Aussenberg. 1 p. (R44588) 


Army Corps of Engineers: FY2017 Appropriations, 
by Charles V. Stern. 2 p. (IF10361) 

Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015: Adjustments to the 

Budget Control Act of 2011, by Grant A. Driessen. 
3 p. (IN10389) 

Brief Summary of the FY2016 Omnibus and the 

Historical Frequency of Omnibus Appropriations, 
by Jessica Tollestrup. 4 p. (IN10415) 

Budget Resolutions and Budget Enforcement, by 
Bill Heniff Jr. (WPE10061) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


55 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


Budget Resolutions and Budget Enforcement, 
by Bill HenifFJr. (WPE10224) 

Budget Resolutions and Budget Enforcement, 
by Bill HenifFJr. (WPE10302) 

Bureau of Land Management: FY2017 Appropriations, 
by Carol Hardy Vincent. 2 p. (IF10381) 

Bureau of Reclamation: FY2017 Appropriations, 
by Charles V. Stern. 2 p. (IF10375) 

Comparing DHS Component Funding, FY2017: 

Fact Sheet, by William L. Painter. 6 p. (R44611) 

Congress and the Budget: 2016 Actions and Events, 
by Megan S. Lynch and Grant A. Driessen. 8 p. 
(R44347) 

Congressionally Directed Medical Research Program 
Funding for FY2015 and FY2016, by Don J. 

Jansen. 2 p. (IF10349) 

Consideration of Appropriations Bills in the House, 
byjames V. Saturno. (WPE10178) 

Consideration of Appropriations Bills in the House, 
byjames V. Saturno. (WPE10226) 

Consideration of Appropriations Bills in the Senate, 
byjames V. Saturno. (WPE10260) 

The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2016: Effects 
on Budgetary Trends, by Grant A. Driessen. 2 p. 

(IN10419) 

Continuing Resolutions: Components and Procedures for 
Congressional Consideration, byjames V. Saturno. 
(WPE10363) 

Deeming Resolutions: Budget Enforcement in the 
Absence of a Budget Resolution, by Megan S. 
Lynch. 18 p. (R44296) 

Defense: FY2017 Budget Request, Authorization, and 
Appropriations, by Lynn M. Williams and Pat 
Towell. 39 p. (R44454) 


Department of Health and Human Services: FY2017 

Budget Request, by Jessica Tollestrup and Karen E. 
Lynch. 13 p. (R44378) 

Department of Homeland Security Appropriations: 
FY2017, by William L. Painter and Barbara L. 
Schwemle. 32 p. (R44621) 

Department of Housing and Urban Development 
(HUD): FY2017 Appropriations, by Maggie 
McCarty, Eugene Boyd, Katie Jones and Libby 
Perl. 14 p. (R44495) 

Department of Housing and Urban Development 
(HUD): FY2017 Budget Request Overview 
and Resources, by Maggie McCarty. 5 p. (R44380) 

Department of State and Foreign Operations 

Appropriations: History of Legislation and 
Funding in Brief, by Susan B. Epstein. 11 p. 
(R44637) 

Department of Veterans Affairs FY2016 Appropriations: 
In Brief, by Sidath Viranga Panangala. 12 p. 
(R44241) 

Department of Veterans Affairs FY2017 Appropriations, 
by Sidath Viranga Panangala. 16 p. (R44625) 

DHS Appropriations FY2016: Security, Enforcement 
and Investigations, by William L. Painter, John 
Frittelli, Bart Elias, Lisa Seghetti and Alison Siskin. 
32 p. (R44215) 

Energy and Water Development Appropriations for 
Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation: In Brief, by 
Mary Beth D. Nikitin. 5 p. (R44413) 

Energy and Water Development: FY2017 

Appropriations, by Mark Holt. 23 p. (R44465) 

Energy and Water Development: FY2017 Appropriations 
for Nuclear Weapons Activities, by Amy F. Woolf. 
14 p. (R44442) 

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE): 

Appropriations and the FY2016 Budget Request, 
by Fred Sissine and Kelsi Bracmort. 12 p. (R44262) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


56 







CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


Everglades Restoration: Recent Developments and 
Legislation, by Charles V. Stern. 2 p. (IF10372) 

Export-Import Bank (Ex-Im Bank) and the Federal 
Budget, by Grant A. Driessen. 2 p. (IF10457) 

Fact Sheet: Selected Highlights of the FY2017 Military 
Construction Appropriations Bills, by Daniel H. 
Else. 11 p. (R44596) 

Fact Sheet: Selected Highlights of the FY2017 National 
Defense Authorization Act (H.R. 4909), by Lynn 
M. Williams and Pat Towell. 6 p. (R44497) 

The Federal Budget: Overview and Issues for FY2017 
and Beyond, by Grant A. Driessen. 20 p. (R44428) 

The Federal Budget: Understanding Fiscal Outcomes, 
by D. Andrew Austin and Grant A. Driessen. 2 p. 
(IF10453) 

Financial Services and General Government (FSGG) 
FY2016 Appropriations: Independent Agencies 
and General Provisions, by Baird Webel, Kevin 
J. Coleman, Robert Jay Dilger, Patricia Moloney 
Figliola, R. Sam Garrett, Darryl E. Getter, Wendy 
Ginsberg, Raj Gnanarajah, Gary Guenther, Garrett 
Hatch, Sean Lowry, Rena S. Miller, Barbara L. 
Schwemle, Gary Shorter, Mark P. Sullivan, Barbara 
Salazar Torreon, Jacob R. Straus and Michelle D. 
Christensen. 31 p. (R44299) 

Financial Services and General Government (FSGG) 

FY2017 Appropriations: Overview, by Baird Webel. 
7 p. (R44535) 

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Budget: Fact 
Sheet, by Susan Thaul and Agata Dabrowska. 6 p. 
(R44576) 

Forest Service: FY2016 Discretionary Appropriations, by 
Katie Hoover. 2 p. (IF10370) 

Funding for Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) at 
DOE: In Brief, by Peter Folger. 8 p. (R44472) 

FY2015 Status Table of Appropriations, by 
Jared C. Nagel and Justin Murray. 
(APPROPRIATIONSSTATUSTABLE_2015) 


FY2016 Appropriations: Selected Federal Food Safety 
Agencies, by Renee Johnson. 10 p. (R44309) 

FY2016 Status Table of Appropriations, by 
Jared C. Nagel and Justin Murray. 
(APPROPRIATIONSSTATUSTABLE_2016) 

FY2017 Agriculture and Related Agencies Appropriations: 
In Brief, by Jim Monke. 12 p. (R44441) 

FY2017 Appropriations for the Department of Justice, 
by Nathan James. 1 p. (R44424) 

FY2017 Defense Appropriations Fact Sheet: Selected 
Highlights of H.R. 5293 and S. 3000, by 
Lynn M. Williams and Pat Towell. 8 p. (R44531) 

FY2017 Defense Budget: Issues for Congress, by 
Kristy N. Kamarck, Kathleen J. Mclnnis, Pat 
Towell, Ronald O’Rourke and Lynn M. Williams. 
(WPE10026) 

FY2017 Defense Budget: Issues for Congress, by 

Pat Towell, Kathleen J. Mclnnis, Anne Daugherty 
Miles, Kristy N. Kamarck, Ronald O’Rourke and 
Lynn M. Williams. (WRE00131) 

FY2017 Defense Budget: Issues for Congress, by 

Pat Towell, Kathleen J. Mclnnis, Anne Daugherty 
Miles, Kristy N. Kamarck, Ronald O’Rourke and 
Lynn M. Williams. (WVB00086) 

FY2017 Defense Budget Request: In Brief, by 

Pat Towell and Lynn M. Williams. 9 p. (R44379) 

FY2017 Defense Spending Under an Interim Continuing 
Resolution (CR): In Brief, by Darren P. Wees and 
Lynn M. Williams. 13 p. (R44636) 

FY2017 International Affairs Budget: Issues for 

Congress, by Alex Tiersky, Marian L. Lawson and 
Susan B. Epstein. (WPE10000) 

FY2017 International Affairs Budget: Issues for 

Congress, by Susan B. Epstein, Marian L. Lawson 
and Alex Tiersky. (WVB00091) 

FY2017 Labor-HHS-Education Appropriations: 

Status and Issues, by Karen E. Lynch and Jessica 
Tollestrup. 5 p. (R44478) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


57 







CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


FY2017 State, Foreign Operations and Related Programs 
Budget Request: In Brief, by Marian L. Lawson, 
AlexTiersky and Susan B. Epstein. 12 p. (R44391) 

The Global Climate Change Initiative (GCCI): Budget 
Authority and Request, FY2015 - FY2017, by 
Richard K. Lattanzio. 2 p. (IF10397) 

IAEA Budget and U.S. Contributions: In Brief, by Paul 
K. Kerr and Susan B. Epstein. 4 p. (R44384) 

IMF Provisions in the FY2016 Omnibus, by Martin A. 
Weiss and Rebecca M. Nelson. 3 p. (IN10416) 

Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies: FY2017 
Appropriations, by Carol Hardy Vincent. 10 p. 
(R44470) 

Internal Revenue Service Budget, FY2017, by Gary 
Guenther. 2 p. (IF10433) 

Judiciary Appropriations, FY2017, by Matthew E. 
Glassman. 10 p. (R44526) 

Judiciary Budget Request, FY2015, by Matthew E. 
Glassman. 2 p. (IF10459) 

Judiciary Budget Request, FY2017, by Matthew E. 
Glassman. 2 p. (IF10356) 

Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education: 
FY2016 Appropriations, by Karen E. Lynch, 
Heather B. Gonzalez, David H. Bradley, Ada S. 
Cornell, Scott D. Szymendera and Angela Napili. 
51 p. (R44287) 

Land and Water Conservation Fund (LWCF): Questions 
and Answers Related to Expired Provisions, by 
Carol Hardy Vincent and Bill Heniff Jr. 2 p. 
(IF10323) 

Legislative Branch: FY2017 Appropriations, by Ida A. 
Brudnick. 30 p. (R44515) 

Military Construction: FY2017 Appropriations, by 
Daniel H. Else. 12 p. (R44639) 

NASA: FY2017 Budget and Appropriations, by Daniel 
Morgan. 6 p. (R44397) 


Ocean Energy Agency Appropriations, FY2016, by Marc 
Humphries and Laura B. Comay. 11 p. (R44312) 

Overseas Contingency Operations Funding: Background 
and Status, by Lynn M. Williams, Susan B. 

Epstein, Jim Zanotti, Christopher T. Mann, Anne 
Daugherty Miles, Heidi M. Peters, Christopher M. 
Blanchard, Daniel H. Else and Kenneth Katzman. 
56 p. (R44519) 

Overview of Funding Mechanisms in the Federal 

Budget Process, and Selected Examples, by Jessica 
Tollestrup. 37 p. (R44582) 

Overview of FY2017 Appropriations for Commerce, 
Justice, Science, and Related Agencies (CJS), by 
Nathan James. 17 p. (R44409) 

Overview of the Appropriations Process, by James V. 
Saturno. (WPE10060) 

Overview of the Appropriations Process, by James V. 
Saturno. (WPE10296) 

Overview of the Appropriations Process, by James V. 
Saturno. (WPE10355) 

Overview of the Federal Budget Process, by Bill Heniff Jr 
(WPE2748) 

Overview of the Federal Budget Process, by Bill Heniff Jr 
(WPE10166) 

Overview of the Federal Budget Process, by Bill Heniff Jr 
(WPE10225) 

Overview of the Federal Budget Process, by Bill Heniff Jr 
(WPE10258) 

Overview of the Federal Budget Process, by James V. 
Saturno. (WPE2745) 

Overview of the Federal Budget Process, by James V. 
Saturno. (WPE10295) 

Overview of the Federal Budget Process, by Megan S. 
Lynch. (WPE10354) 

Overview of the FY2016 Continuing Resolution 

(H.R. 719), by Jessica Tollestrup. 20 p. (R44214) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


58 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


Pension Funds Stabilization Provisions in the Proposed 
Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015, by John J. 

Topoleski. 3 p. (IN10383) 

Pension Provisions in H.R. 1314, the Proposed Bipartisan 
Budget Act of 2015, by John J. Topoleski. 3 p. 
(IN10385) 

Potential Policy Implications of the House Reconciliation 
Bill (H.R. 3762), by Annie L. Mach, Julie M. 
Whittaker, James V. Saturno, C. Stephen Redhead, 
Sean Lowry, Sarah A. Lister, Elayne J. Heisler and 
Jim Hahn. 12 p. (R44238) 

President and The Budget, by Clinton T. Brass. 
(WPE2703) 

President and The Budget, by Clinton T. Brass. 
(WPE2704) 

President and The Budget, by Clinton T. Brass. 
(WPE10307) 

President’s FY2017 Budget for the Centers for Medicare 
& Medicaid Services (CMS): CRS Experts, by 
Alison Mitchell, lip. (R44382) 

Public Health Service Agencies: Overview and Funding 
(FY2015-FY2017), by Agata Dabrowska, C. 
Stephen Redhead, Elayne J. Heisler, Judith A. 
Johnson, Sarah A. Lister, Amanda K. Sarata and 
Erin Bagalman. 38 p. (R44505) 

Reaching the Debt Limit, by D. Andrew Austin and 
Grant A. Driessen. (WPE2694) 

Reaching the Debt Limit, by D. Andrew Austin and 
Grant A. Driessen. (WPE2696) 

Reaching the Debt Limit, by Grant A. Driessen and D. 
Andrew Austin. (WRE00119) 

Reaching the Debt Limit, by Grant A. Driessen and D. 
Andrew Austin. (WVB00072) 

Reaching the Debt Limit (hosted in the CRS Senate 
Center), by D. Andrew Austin and Grant A. 
Driessen. (WPE2693) 


SAMHSA FY2017 Budget Request and Funding 
History: A Fact Sheet, by Erin Bagalman. 4 p. 
(R44375) 

Security Cooperation and the FY2017 National Defense 
Authorization Act (NDAA), by Liana W. Rosen, 
Boiko J. Skorupski, Kathleen J. Mclnnis and Nina 
M. Serafino. 4 p. (IN10538) 

Selected Financial Services Provisions in the 

Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2016, by Sean 
M. Hoskins, Gary Shorter, Wendy Ginsberg, Raj 
Gnanarajah, Katie Jones, Baird Webel, N. Eric 
Weiss and Rena S. Miller. 3 p. (IN10417) 

Spending on Unauthorized Programs, by Jessica 
Tollestrup. 7 p. (TE10005) 

Supplemental Appropriations for Zika Response: The 
FY2016 Conference Agreement in Brief, by Sarah 
A. Lister and Susan B. Epstein, lip. (R44549) 

Treasury Department Appropriations, FY2016, by Gary 
Guenther. 34 p. (R44346) 

Trends in Mandatory Spending: In Brief, by D. Andrew 
Austin. 7 p. (R44641) 

Trends in the Timing and Size of DHS Appropriations: 
In Brief, by William L. Painter. 8 p. (R44604) 

Understanding the Federal Budget, by D. Andrew Austin 
and Grant A. Driessen. (WPE10358) 

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): FY2017 
President’s Budget Request, by Robert Esworthy 
and David M. Bearden. 2 p. (IF10383) 

U.S. Foreign Assistance to the Middle East: Historical 
Background, Recent Trends, and the FY2016 
Request, by Carla E. Humud and Jeremy M. Sharp. 
23 p. (R44233) 

Veterans’Medical Care: FY2016 Appropriations, by 
Sidath Viranga Panangala. 35 p. (R44301) 

Zika Response Funding: In Brief, by Susan B. Epstein 
and Sarah A. Lister, lip. (R44460) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


59 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


DEFENSE 


Access to Digital Data: The Legal Debate over 

Government Surveillance and Encryption, by 
Richard M. Thompson II. (WVB00096) 

Acquisition Efficiency and the Future Navy Force, by 
Ronald O’Rourke. 25 p. (TE10001) 

Acquisition Reform in the House and Senate Versions of 
the FY2017 National Defense Authorization Act, 
byMoshe Schwartz. 13 p. (R44561) 

Additional U.S. Ground Troops to Counter the Islamic 
State? Five Questions, by Andrew Feickert and 
Kathleen J. Mclnnis. 2 p. (IN 10447) 

The Air Force Aviation Investment Challenge, by 
Jeremiah Gertler. 7 p. (R44305) 

Air Force B-21 Long Range Strike Bomber, by Jeremiah 
Gertler. 12 p. (R44463) 

Air Force Bomber Contract Awarded, by Jeremiah 
Gertler. 4 p. (IN10384) 

Army and Marine Corps Active Protection System 

(APS) Efforts, by Andrew Feickert. 26 p. (R44598) 

The Army’s M-l Abrams, M-2/M-3 Bradley, and 
M-1126 Stryker: Background and Issues for 
Congress, by Andrew Feickert. 34 p. (R44229) 

Blackout! Are We Prepared to Manage the Aftermath of 
a Cyber-Attack or Other Failure of the Electrical 
Grid?, by Richard J. Campbell. 7 p. (TE10008) 

Caregiver Support to Veterans, by Kirsten J. Colello. 2 p. 
(IF10396) 

Challenges to the United States in Space, by Clark 
Groves and Steven A. Hildreth. 2 p. (IF10337) 

Coast Guard Arctic Implementation Capabilities, by 
Ronald O’Rourke. 18 p. (TE10012) 

Congressionally Directed Medical Research Program 
Funding for FY2015 and FY2016, by Don J. 
Jansen. 2 p. (IF10349) 


Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 
2007-2014, by Catherine A. Theohary. 2 p. 
(R44320) 

Cybersecurity: Critical Infrastructure Authoritative 
Reports and Resources, by Rita Tehan. 27 p. 
(R44410) 

Cybersecurity: Cybercrime and National Security 
Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Rita 
Tehan. 37 p. (R44408) 

Cybersecurity: Education, Training, and R&D 

Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Rita 
Tehan. 14 p. (R44406) 

Cybersecurity: Overview Reports and Links to 

Government, News, and Related Resources, by Rita 
Tehan. 15 p. (R44405) 

Cybersecurity: State, Local, and International 

Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Rita 
Tehan. 26 p. (R44417) 

Cyber-Threat Actors: Overview and Considerations, by 
Kristin Finklea, Catherine A. Theohary and John 
W. Rollins. (WPE2713) 

Defense Acquisition Reform: Change in the Department 
of Defense - Perspectives of Former Hill Staffers, 
by Moshe Schwartz. (WRE00134) 

Defense Acquisition Reform: Change in the Department 
of Defense - Perspectives of Former Hill Staffers, 
by Moshe Schwartz. (WVB00089) 

Defense Acquisition Reform: From Goldwater-Nichols 
to Better Buying Power, by Moshe Schwartz. 
(WPE2742) 

Defense Acquisition Reform: From Goldwater-Nichols 
to Better Buying Power, by Moshe Schwartz. 
(WPE10020) 

Defense Acquisition Reform: Is It Time for Another 
Goldwater-Nichols?, by Moshe Schwartz. 
(WRE00135) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


60 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


Defense Acquisition Reform: Is It Time for Another 
Goldwater-Nichols?, by Moshe Schwartz. 
(WVB00090) 

Defense Acquisition Reform: Lessons from Past Efforts, 
by Moshe Schwartz. (WRE00132) 

Defense Acquisition Reform: Lessons from Past Efforts, 
by Moshe Schwartz. (WVB00087) 

Defense Acquisition Reform: Video Library, 
by Moshe Schwartz. 5 p. (IN10467) 

Defense: FY2017 Budget Request, Authorization, and 
Appropriations, by Lynn M. Williams and Pat 
Towell. 39 p. (R44454) 

Defense Planning, Programming, Budgeting & 

Execution Process (PPBE), by Charles V. 

O’Connor and Lynn M. Williams. 2 p. (IF10429) 

The Department of Defense Acquisition Workforce: 

Background, Analysis, and Questions for Congress, 
by Moshe Schwartz, Charles V. O’Connor and 
Kathryn A. Francis. 14 p. (R44578) 

Department of Veterans Affairs FY2016 Appropriations: 
In Brief, by Sidath Viranga Panangala. 12 p. 
(R44241) 

Department of Veterans Affairs FY2017 Appropriations, 
by Sidath Viranga Panangala. 16 p. (R44625) 

The Director of National Intelligence (DNI), 
by Anne Daugherty Miles. 2 p. (IF10470) 

Diversity, Inclusion, and Equal Opportunity in the 
Armed Services: Background and Issues for 
Congress, by Kristy N. Kamarck. 49 p. (R44321) 

DOD Domestic School System: Background and Issues, 
by Kristy N. Kamarck. 2 p. (IF10335) 

DOD Releases Plan to Close GTMO, by Jennifer K. 
Elsea. 1 p. (WSLG1501) 

DOD Security Cooperation: An Overview of Authorities 
and Issues, by Nina M. Serafino and Boiko J. 
Skorupski. 61 p. (R44602) 


DOD’s Rotation to the Philippines, by Daniel H. Else. 

3 p. (IN10496) 

Do Veterans Have Choices in How They Access Health 
Care?, by Sidath Viranga Panangala. 2 p. (IF10418) 

End-year DOD Procurement Spending, by Gabriel M. 
Nelson and Moshe Schwartz. 2 p. (IF10365) 

Energy and Water Development Appropriations for 
Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation: In Brief, 
by Mary Beth D. Nikitin. 5 p. (R44413) 

Energy and Water Development: FY2017 Appropriations 
for Nuclear Weapons Activities, by Amy F. Woolf. 
14 p. (R44442) 

Fact Sheet: FY2017 National Defense Authorization Act 
(NDAA) DOD Reform Proposals, by Kathleen J. 
Mclnnis. 10 p. (R44508) 

Fact Sheet: Selected Highlights of the FY2017 Military 
Construction Appropriations Bills, by Daniel H. 
Else. 11 p. (R44596) 

Fact Sheet: Selected Highlights of the FY2017 National 
Defense Authorization Act (H.R. 4909), by Lynn 
M. Williams and Pat Towell. 6 p. (R44497) 

The Federal Cybersecurity Workforce: Background 
and Congressional Oversight Issues for the 
Departments of Defense and Homeland Security, 
by Wendy Ginsberg and Kathryn A. Francis. 26 p. 
(R44338) 

Federal Support for Graduate Medical Education: 

An Overview, by Elayne J. Heisler, Scott R. Talaga, 
Sidath Viranga Panangala, Don J. Jansen and 
Alison Mitchell. 24 p. (R44376) 

Finding #20 and the Case of the “28 Pages,” by Anne 
Daugherty Miles. 2 p. (IF10438) 

FLU Preview: National Security Law Update: FISA 

Reform and Wartime Detainee Policy, by Edward 
C. Liu and Jennifer K. Elsea. 1 p. (WSLG1548) 

Foreign Military Sales Congressional Review Process, 
by Paul K. Kerr. 2 p. (IF10392) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


61 







CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


FY2016 Changes to DOD’s 1033 Program, 
by Daniel H. Else. 2 p. (IN10445) 

FY2017 Defense Appropriations Fact Sheet: Selected 
Highlights of H.R. 5293 and S. 3000, by Lynn M. 
Williams and PatTowell. 8 p. (R44531) 

FY2017 Defense Budget: Issues for Congress, by 

Kathleen J. Mclnnis, Lynn M. Williams, Kristy 
N. Kamarck, PatTowell and Ronald O’Rourke. 
(WPE10030) 

FY2017 Defense Budget: Issues for Congress, 

by Kristy N. Kamarck, Kathleen J. Mclnnis, Pat 
Towell, Ronald O’Rourke and Lynn M. Williams. 
(WPE10026) 

FY2017 Defense Budget: Issues for Congress, by 

Kristy N. Kamarck, Kathleen J. Mclnnis, Ronald 
O’Rourke, Pat Towell and Lynn M. Williams. 
(WPE2751) 

FY2017 Defense Budget: Issues for Congress, by 

Kristy N. Kamarck, Kathleen J. Mclnnis, Ronald 
O’Rourke, Pat Towell and Lynn M. Williams. 
(WPE2752) 

FY2017 Defense Budget: Issues for Congress, by Pat 
Towell, Kathleen J. Mclnnis, Anne Daugherty 
Miles, Kristy N. Kamarck, Ronald O’Rourke and 
Lynn M. Williams. (WRE00131) 

FY2017 Defense Budget: Issues for Congress, by Pat 
Towell, Kathleen J. Mclnnis, Anne Daugherty 
Miles, Kristy N. Kamarck, Ronald O’Rourke and 
Lynn M. Williams. (WVB00086) 

FY2017 Defense Budget Request: In Brief, by Pat Towell 
and Lynn M. Williams. 9 p. (R44379) 

FY2017 Defense Spending Under an Interim Continuing 
Resolution (CR): In Brief, by Darren P. Wees and 
Lynn M. Williams. 13 p. (R44636) 

FY2017 National Defense Authorization Act: Selected 
Military Personnel Issues, by Kristy N. Kamarck, 
Don J. Jansen, Barbara Salazar Torreon, R. Chuck 
Mason and Lawrence Kapp. 44 p. (R44577) 


General and Flag Officers in the U.S. Armed Forces: 
Issues for Congress, by Lawrence Kapp. 20 p. 
(R44389) 

Goldwater-Nichols and the Evolution of Officer Joint 
Professional Military Education (JPME), 
by Kristy N. Kamarck. 15 p. (R44340) 

Goldwater-Nichols at 30: Defense Reform and Issues for 
Congress, by Kathleen J. Mclnnis. 51 p. (R44474) 

House Approves Measure to Prevent Return of GTMO 
to Cuba without Congress’s Say So, by Jennifer K. 
Elsea. 1 p. (WSLG1586) 

How Big Should the Army Be? Considerations for 

Congress, by Lawrence Kapp, Kathleen J. Mclnnis, 
Lynn M. Williams and Andrew Feickert. 17 p. 
(R44612) 

IAEA Budget and U.S. Contributions: In Brief, 

by Paul K. Kerr and Susan B. Epstein. 4 p. (R44384) 

Information Warfare: Russian Activities, by Kathleen 
J. Mclnnis and Catherine A.Theohary. 3 p. 
(IN10563) 

Intelligence Planning, Programming, Budgeting & 

Evaluation Process (IPPBE), by Anne Daugherty 
Miles. 2 p. (IF10428) 

Intelligence Spending: In Brief, by Anne Daugherty 
Miles. 15 p. (R44381) 

Intent Requirements in Criminal Provisions Regarding 
the Unauthorized Disclosure of Classified 
Information, by Edward C. Liu. 1 p. (WSLG1624) 

Keynote: Current OSD Efforts to Improve Defense 
Acquisitions, by Moshe Schwartz. (WRE00133) 

Legal Tools to Deter Travel by Suspected Terrorists: A 
Brief Primer, by Jared P. Cole and Michael John 
Garcia. 1 p. (WSLG1438) 

Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems: Issues for 
Congress, by Thomas Payne. 27 p. (R44466) 

Military Base Issues: July 19,2016, by Daniel H. Else. 

2 p. (IF10437) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


62 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


Military Construction: FY2017 Appropriations, 
by Daniel H. Else. 12 p. (R44639) 

Military Funeral Honors for Veterans, 

by Scott D. Szymendera. 8 p. (R44426) 

Military Lending Act: Timeline, New Rules, and Issues, 
by Kristy N. Kamarck. 3 p. (IN 10497) 

Military Maternity and Parental Leave Policies, 
by Kristy N. Kamarck. 2 p. (IN10436) 

Military Officer Personnel Management: Key Concepts 
and Statutory Provisions, by Lawrence Kapp. 17 p. 
(R44496) 

Military Transition Assistance Program (TAP): An 
Overview, by Kristy N. Kamarck. 2 p. (IF10347) 

National Commission on the Future of the Army 

(NCFA): Background and Issues for Congress, 
by Andrew Feickert. 22 p. (R44366) 

National Security Space Launch at a Crossroads, 
by Steven A. Hildreth. 13 p. (R44498) 

Navy Force Structure: A Bigger Fleet? Background and 
Issues for Congress, by Ronald O’Rourke. 17 p. 
(R44635) 

North Korea’s Nuclear and Ballistic Missile Programs, 
by Mary Beth D. Nikitin and Steven A. Hildreth. 

2 p. (IF10472) 

The Open Skies Treaty: Issues in the Current Debate, 
by Amy F. Woolf. 2 p. (IN10502) 

Orlando Nightclub Mass Shooting: Gun Checks and 
Terrorist Watchlists, by William J. Krouse. 2 p. 
(IN10509) 

Overseas Contingency Operations Funding: Background 
and Status, by Lynn M. Williams, Susan B. 
Epstein, Jim Zanotti, Christopher T. Mann, Anne 
Daugherty Miles, Heidi M. Peters, Christopher M. 
Blanchard, Daniel H. Else and Kenneth Katzman. 
56 p. (R44519) 


Possible U.S. Policy Approaches After North Korea’s 
January 2016 Nuclear Test, by Mark E. Manyin, 

Ian E. Rinehart and Emma Chanlett-Avery. 2 p. 
(IF10345) 

Presidential Policy Directive 41: United States 

Cyber Incident Coordination—What Is the Role 
of the Department of Defense?, by John W. Rollins 
and Catherine A. Theohary. 3 p. (IN10584) 

Presidential Vetoes of Annual Defense Authorization 
Bills, by Pat Towell. 3 p. (IN10368) 

A Presidential Visit to Hiroshima?, by Emma Chanlett- 
Avery. 2 p. (IF10395) 

The President’s FY2017 Military Construction Budget 
Request, by Daniel H. Else. 2 p. (IF10362) 

“Right-Sizing” the National Security Council Staff?, 
by Kathleen J. Mclnnis. 3 p. (IN10521) 

Saudi Military Campaign in Yemen Draws Congressional 
Attention to U.S. Arms Sales, by Christopher M. 
Blanchard, Paul K. Kerr and Jeremy M. Sharp. 

3 p. (IN10557) 

Security Assistance and Cooperation: Shared 

Responsibility of the Departments of State and 
Defense, by Nina M. Serafino. 59 p. (R44444) 

Security Cooperation and the FY2017 National Defense 
Authorization Act (NDAA), by Liana W. Rosen, 
Boiko J. Skorupski, Kathleen J. Mclnnis and Nina 
M. Serafino. 4 p. (IN10538) 

The Selective Service System and Draft Registration: 
Issues for Congress, by Kristy N. Kamarck. 

28 p. (R44452) 

The Status of Coast Guard Cutter Acquisition Programs, 
by Ronald O’Rourke. 17 p. (TE10004) 

Surveillance of Foreigners Outside the United States 
Under Section 702 of the Foreign Intelligence 
Surveillance Act (FISA), by Edward C. Liu. 

6 p. (R44457) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


63 







CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


U.S. Electronic Attack Aircraft, by Ray Zuniga. 41 p. 
(R44572) 

Using Data to Improve Defense Acquisitions: 

Background, Analysis, and Questions for Congress, 
byMoshe Schwartz. 16 p. (R44329) 

The U.S. Intelligence Community (IC), 

by Anne Daugherty Miles. 2 p. (IF10469) 

The U.S. Intelligence Community: Selected Cross- 
Cutting Issues, by Anne Daugherty Miles. 35 p. 
(R44455) 

U.S. Military Casualty Statistics, by Hannah Fischer. 

1 p. (IG10000) 

U.S. Nuclear Weapons in Turkey, by Amy F. Woolf. 

2 p. (IN 10542) 


U.S. Nuclear Weapons Policy: Considering “No First 
Use,” by Amy F. Woolf. 2 p. (IN10553) 

The Veterans Choice Program (VCP): Program 

Implementation, by Victoria Elliott and Sidath 
Viranga Panangala. 18 p. (R44562) 

Veterans’Medical Care: FY2016 Appropriations, 
by Sidath Viranga Panangala. 35 p. (R44301) 

What Is “Building Partner Capacity?” Issues for 

Congress, by Kathleen J. Mclnnis and Nathan J. 
Lucas. 60 p. (R44313) 

Women and the Selective Service, by Kristy N. Kamarck. 
2 p. (IN10414) 


ECONOMY, FINANCE, AND RECOVERY 


An Analysis of Portfolio Lending and Qualified 

Mortgages, by Sean M. Hoskins. 27 p. (R44350) 

Another Foreign Bank Claims FinCEN’s “Death 
Sentence” Requires Better Procedures, 
by M. Maureen Murphy. 1 p. (WSLG1422) 

Athletic Footwear for the Military: The Berry 

Amendment Controversy, by Michaela D. Platzer. 

3 p. (IN10501) 

Basics of Risk Regulation for Insured Depository 

Institutions, by Darryl E. Getter. (WRE00123) 

Basics of Risk Regulation for Insured Depository 

Institutions, by Darryl E. Getter. (WVB00076) 

A Brief Overview of H.R. 1210, the Portfolio Lending 
and Mortgage Access Act, by Sean M. Hoskins. 

2 p. (IF10321) 

CFPB Issues Proposal to Regulate Payday, Car Title, and 
Other Small-Dollar Loans, by David H. Carpenter. 
1 p. (WSLG1613) 


CFTC’s Auditor Finds “Material Error” in FY2015 
Financial Statements, by Raj Gnanarajah. 3 p. 
(IN10439) 

Changes in the U.S. Commercial Space Industry, 
by Bill Canis. 2 p. (IF10415) 

The Changing Contours of the Global Economy, 
by Ian F. Fergusson, James K. Jackson and 
Wayne M. Morrison. (WRE00144) 

The Changing Contours of the Global Economy, 
by Ian F. Fergusson, James K. Jackson and 
Wayne M. Morrison. (WVB00100) 

China’s Status as a Nonmarket Economy (NME), 
by Wayne M. Morrison. 2 p. (IF10385) 

The Collapse of the Third Avenue Junk Bond Fund, 
by Gary Shorter. 2 p. (IF10360) 

Commodity Futures Trading Commission: Proposed 
Reauthorization in the 114th Congress, 
by Rena S. Miller. 19 p. (R44231) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


64 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


Community Banks, by Sean M. Hoskins. 1 p. (IG10004) 

Conflicts of Interest Rule for Asset-Backed Securities, 
by Gary Shorter and Edward V. Murphy. 2 p. 
(IF10410) 

Cost-Benefit Analysis in Rulemaking and Financial 
Regulators, by David W. Perkins. 2 p. (IN10575) 

Currency Exchange Rate Policies and the World Trade 
Organization Subsidies Agreement, by Brandon J. 
Murrill. 2 p. (IF10406) 

Daily Fantasy Sports: Industry Trends, Fegal and 

Regulatory Issues, and Policy Options, by Michaela 
D. Platzer, David H. Carpenter and Brian T. Yeh. 

22 p. (R44398) 

D.C. Circuit Court Requires Jarkesy to Exhaust SEC 
Administrative Forum before Court Challenge, 
by Michael V. Seitzinger. 1 p. (WSLG1434) 

Declining Dynamism in the U.S. Labor Market, 
by David W. Perkins. 5 p. (IN10506) 

Deficits and Debt: Economic Effects and Other Issues, 
by Grant A. Driessen. 9 p. (R44383) 

Derivatives: Introduction and Legislation in the 

114th Congress, by Rena S. Miller. 34 p. (R44351) 

Designation of Global ‘Too Big To Fail’Firms, by James 
K. Jackson and Rena S. Miller. 3 p. (IN10388) 

The Dodd-Frank Act: An Overview of the 2016 
Incentive-Based Compensation Proposal, by 
Gary Shorter and Raj Gnanarajah. 16 p. (R44554) 

Economic Effects of the FY2014 Shutdown, 
by Marc Labonte. 1 p. (IG10003) 

The Economic Effects of Trade: Overview and Policy 
Challenges, by James K. Jackson. 40 p. (R44546) 

Economic Growth Slower Than Previous 10 Expansions, 
by Jeffrey M. Stupak. 3 p. (IN10520) 

Economic Implications of a United Kingdom Exit from 
the European Union, by James K. Jackson, Derek E. 
Mix and Shayerah Ilias Akhtar. 18 p. (R44559) 


Effects of Buy America on Transportation Infrastructure 
and U.S. Manufacturing: Policy Options, 
by Michaela D. Platzer and William J. Mallett. 

19 p. (R44266) 

Eleventh Circuit Joins Other Federal Circuit Courts in 
Upholding SEC In-House Administrative Forum, 
by Michael V. Seitzinger. 1 p. (WSLG1618) 

Ex-Im Bank: No Quorum, No Problem?, 

by Shayerah Ilias Akhtar. 2 p. (IN10574) 

Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac in Conservatorship: 
Frequently Asked Questions, by N. Eric Weiss. 

20 p. (R44525) 

FDIC’s Plan to Meet Increased Deposit Insurance Fund 
Reserve Ratio, by Raj Gnanarajah. 3 p. (IN10398) 

Federal Reserve Issues Final Rule on Emergency 
Lending, by M. Maureen Murphy and Marc 
Labonte. 3 p. (IN10426) 

FERC Reviewing Its Approach to Market Power 
Determinations, by Richard J. Campbell. 2 p. 
(IN10588) 

FHFA’s Administrative Reform of Fannie Mae, 

Freddie Mac, and the Housing Finance System, 
by Sean M. Hoskins. 24 p. (R44506) 

The Financial CHOICE Act, by Sean M. Hoskins, Gary 
Shorter and Marc Labonte. 3 p. (IN10524) 

The Financial CHOICE Act: Policy Issues, by Sean M. 
Hoskins, Baird Webel, Gary Shorter, David W. 
Perkins, Edward V. Murphy, Rena S. Miller, Marc 
Labonte, Christopher M. Davis and David H. 
Carpenter. 36 p. (R44631) 

Financial Stability Oversight Council: Issues in the 
Financial Regulatory Improvement Act of 2015, 
by Edward V. Murphy. 2 p. (IF10332) 

The Financial Stability Oversight Council Reform Act 
(H.R. 3340), by Edward V. Murphy. 2 p. (IN10473) 

FinCEN Gets a Remand to Revamp Its Regulation to 
Bar FBME Bank From the U.S. Financial System, 
by M. Maureen Murphy. 1 p. (WSLG1447) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


65 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


FinCEN Seeks Shell-Company Transparency, 
by M. Maureen Murphy. 1 p. (WSLG1588) 

FinCEN’s Money Laundering Death Penalty 

Temporarily Blocked, by M. Maureen Murphy. 1 p. 
(WSLG1388) 

First Spoofing Conviction Gives Teeth to Dodd-Frank in 
Prosecuting Commodities Violations, by Michael 
V. Seitzinger. 1 p. (WSLG1457) 

Freddie Mac Announces Quarterly Loss, Does Not 
Require Additional Treasury Assistance, 
by Sean M. Hoskins. 4 p. (IN10391) 

FSOC Appeals District Court Rejection of Its MetLife 
SiFi Designation as “Profoundly Mistaken,” 
by M. Maureen Murphy. 1 p. (WSLG1620) 

FSOC Rescinds GE Capital’s Designation as a 

Systemically Important Financial Institution, 
by David H. Carpenter. 1 p. (WSLG1623) 

FSOC Transparency and Accountability Act (H.R. 

3557): Policy Issues, by Edward V. Murphy. 

2 p. (IF10366) 

The Fundamentals of Unemployment Compensation, 
by Katelin P. Isaacs and Julie M. Whittaker. 

2 p. (IF10336) 

The Glass-Steagall Act: A Legal and Policy Analysis, 
by M. Maureen Murphy, David H. Carpenter and 
Edward V. Murphy. 26 p. (R44349) 

Hedge Funds and the Securities Exchange Act’s Section 
13(d) Reporting Requirements, by Michael V. 
Seitzinger. 1 p. (WSLG1472) 

Higher Oil Prices?, by Robert Pirog. 2 p. (IF10388) 

High Frequency Trading: Overview of Recent 

Developments, by Gary Shorter and Rena S. Miller. 
15 p. (R44443) 

House-Passed Derivatives Bill Exempts Certain Swaps 
Affiliate Trades in H.R. 1317, by Rena S. Miller. 

2 p. (IN 10402) 


How a National Infrastructure Bank Might Work, 
by William J. Mallett. 3 p. (IN10572) 

How Much Slack Remains in the Labor Market?, 
by Jeffrey M. Stupak and Marc Labonte. 4 p. 
(IN10549) 

iFinance: Financial Technology Innovation and the 
Challenge for Congress, by N. Eric Weiss and 
Edward V. Murphy. (WRE00124) 

iFinance: Financial Technology Innovation and the 
Challenge for Congress, by N. Eric Weiss and 
Edward V. Murphy. (WVB00078) 

IMF Provisions in the FY2016 Omnibus, by Martin A. 
Weiss and Rebecca M. Nelson. 3 p. (IN10416) 

The IMF’s Special Drawing Right and China’s Renminbi, 
by Martin A. Weiss. 2 p. (IF10327) 

Internet Sales and State Taxes: Policy Issues, 

by Sean Lowry and Erika K. Lunder. 2 p. (IN10418) 

Introduction to Financial Regulation: Insurance, 
by Baird Webel. (WRE00115) 

Introduction to Financial Regulation: Insurance, 
by Baird Webel. (WVB00068) 

Introduction to Financial Regulation: Real Estate 

Appraisals, by Edward V. Murphy. 2 p. (IF10423) 

Introduction to Financial Regulatory Policy: Who 

Regulates Whom, How?, by Edward V. Murphy. 
(WRE00122) 

Introduction to Financial Regulatory Policy: Who 

Regulates Whom, How?, by Edward V. Murphy. 
(WVB00075) 

Introduction to U.S. Economy: GDP and Economic 
Growth, by Jeffrey M. Stupak and Mark P. 
Keightley. 2 p. (IF10408) 

Introduction to U.S. Economy: Inflation, by Jeffrey M. 
Stupak. 2 p. (IF10477) 

Introduction to U.S. Economy: The Business Cycle and 
Growth, by Jeffrey M. Stupak. 2 p. (IF10411) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


66 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


Is the Chinese “Economic Miracle” Over?, 
by Wayne M. Morrison. 2 p. (IF10313) 

The Manufacturing Extension Partnership Program, 
by John F. Sargent Jr. 30 p. (R44308) 

Marketplace Lending: Fintech in Consumer and Small- 
Business Lending, by David W. Perkins. 20 p. 
(R44614) 

The National Network for Manufacturing Innovation, 
by John F. Sargent Jr. 16 p. (R44371) 

Negative Interest Rates, by Marc Labonte. 3 p. 

(IN10481) 

Oil Prices and the Value of the Dollar, by Robert Pirog. 

2 p. (IF10386) 

Overview of Commercial (Depository) Banking and 
Industry Conditions, by Darryl E. Getter. 16 p. 
(R44488) 

Overview of the Prudential Regulatory Framework for 
U.S. Banks: Basel III and the Dodd-Frank Act, 
by Darryl E. Getter. 28 p. (R44573) 

Payday Lenders’ Challenge to Banking Regulators 

Cooperation in “Operation Choke Point” Survives 
a Motion to Dismiss, by M. Maureen Murphy. 1 p. 
(WSLG1433) 

Pension Funds Stabilization Provisions in the Proposed 
Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015, by John J. 

Topoleski. 3 p. (IN10383) 

Pension Provisions in H.R. 1314, the Proposed Bipartisan 
Budget Act of 2015, by John J. Topoleski. 3 p. 
(IN10385) 

Possible Economic Impact of Brexit, by Shayerah Ilias 
Akhtar and James K. Jackson. 3 p. (IN10517) 

PROMESA (H.R. 4900) and Puerto Rico, 
by D. Andrew Austin. 2 p. (IN10485) 

Puerto Rico’s Fiscal Situation, by D. Andrew Austin, 
Eugene Boyd, Alison Mitchell, Carol A. Pettit, 
Kenneth R. Thomas and R. Sam Garrett. 
(WPE2719) 


The Puerto Rico Oversight, Management, and Economic 
Stability Act (PROMESA; H.R. 5278), by D. 
Andrew Austin, Carol A. Pettit, Martin A. Weiss, 
Adam Vann, John J. Topoleski, Eugene Boyd, R. 
Sam Garrett, L. Elaine Halchin and Kenneth R. 
Thomas. 42 p. (R44532) 

Reforming Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac: Current 
Legislative Proposals, by N. Eric Weiss. 2 p. 
(IN10394) 

Regulators Reach an ~$5 Billion Settlement 

with Goldman Sachs, by Erika K. Lunder and 
David H. Carpenter. 1 p. (WSLG1557) 

SBA Disaster Loan Program: Frequently Asked 

Questions, by Bruce R. Lindsay, lip. (R44412) 

SBA’s Office of Inspector General: Overview, Impact, and 
Relationship with Congress, by Robert Jay Dilger. 
32 p. (R44589) 

SEC Adopts New Resource Extraction Rules, 

by Michael V. Seitzinger. 1 p. (WSLG1627) 

Second Circuit Reverses DOJ’s $1.2 Billion Judgment 

Against Countrywide, by M. Maureen Murphy. 1 p. 
(WSLG1593) 

Securities and Exchange Commission’s Administrative 

Forum: Background and Selected Legal Challenges, 
by Michael V. Seitzinger. 16 p. (R44280) 

SEC Whistleblowers: Split in the Federal Circuit Courts 
on Dodd-Frank Section, by Michael V. Seitzinger. 

1 p. (WSLG1412) 

Selected Financial Services Provisions in the 

Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2016, by Sean 
M. Hoskins, Gary Shorter, Wendy Ginsberg, Raj 
Gnanarajah, Katie Jones, Baird Webel, N. Eric 
Weiss and Rena S. Miller. 3 p. (IN10417) 

Selected Securities Legislation in the 114th Congress, 
by Gary Shorter. 27 p. (R44255) 

Slow Growth in the Current U.S. Economic Expansion, 
by Mark P. Keightley, Marc Labonte and Jeffrey M. 
Stupak. 25 p. (R44543) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


67 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


Supreme Court Takes Ninth Circuit Insider 
Trading Case, by Michael V. Seitzinger. 

1 p. (WSLG1497) 

TPP: Estimates of Economic Effects, by James K. 
Jackson. 2 p. (IF10431) 

TPP Financial Services Data Flows, by Rachel F. Fefer. 

2 p. (IN10498) 

TPP: Investment Provisions, by Shayerah Ilias Akhtar 
and Ian F. Fergusson. 2 p. (IF10476) 

Trade-Based Money Faundering: Overview and Policy 
Issues, by Rena S. Miller, James K. Jackson and 
Fiana W. Rosen. 18 p. (R44541) 

Trade in Services Agreement (TiSA) Negotiations, 
by Rachel F. Fefer. 2 p. (IF10311) 

The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement Analysis of 
Economic Studies, by James K. Jackson. 31 p. 
(R44551) 

Trans-Pacific Partnership: Rules of Origin, 

by Vivian C. Jones, Michaela D. Platzer and Bill 
Canis. 2 p. (IF10393) 

Trans-Pacific Partnership: Tariffs, Rules of Origin, 

Autos, and Textiles/Apparel/Footwear, by Brock 
R. Williams, Bill Canis, Michaela D. Platzer and 
Vivian C. Jones. (WRE00153) 

Trans-Pacific Partnership: Tariffs, Rules of Origin, Autos, 
and Textiles/Apparel/Footwear, by Vivian C. Jones, 
Michaela D. Platzer, Bill Canis and Brock R. 
Williams. (WVB00113) 

Treasury Issues White Paper on Fintech and Marketplace 
Fending, by Edward V. Murphy. 3 p. (IN 10492) 

Trial Judge Scraps FSOC’s MetFife SiFi Designation: 
Appeal to Follow, by M. Maureen Murphy. 1 p. 
(WSFG1554) 


A U.S.-China Bilateral Investment Treaty (BIT): Issues 
and Implications, by Wayne M. Morrison. 2 p. 
(IF10307) 

U.S. Department of the Treasury Denial of Benefit 
Reductions in the Central States Pension Plan, 
by John J. Topoleski. 3 p. (IN10491) 

U.S. ENG Exports from the Fower 48, 

by Joseph Schnide and Michael Ratner. 4 p. 
(IN10525) 

U.S. Semiconductor Manufacturing: Industry Trends, 
Global Competition, Federal Policy, by John F. 
Sargent Jr. and Michaela D. Platzer. 23 p. (R44544) 

U.S. Textile Manufacturing and the Proposed Trans- 
Pacific Partnership Agreement, by Michaela D. 
Platzer. 21 p. (R44610) 

Wake Up Call for Financial Institution Management: 

Anti-Money Faundering Program Is Your Personal 
Responsibility, by M. Maureen Murphy. 1 p. 
(WSFG1515) 

Wells Fargo and U.S. Reach Tentative 11.2 Billion 
Agreement Over Faulty FHA Mortgages, 
by David H. Carpenter. 1 p. (WSFG1496) 

Wells Fargo Customer Account Scandal: Regulatory 
Policy Issues, by Edward V. Murphy, Sean M. 
Hoskins and Raj Gnanarajah. 3 p. (IN10587) 

Wells Fargo’s Selling Campaign—Enforcement Actions, 
Civil Penalties, and Possible Criminal Charges, 
by M. Maureen Murphy. 1 p. (WSFG1671) 

What Is the Regional Comprehensive Economic 

Partnership?, by Michael F. Martin, Ben Dolven, 
Brock R. Williams, Wayne M. Morrison, Bruce 
Vaughn and Ian F. Fergusson. 2 p. (IF10342) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


68 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


EDUCATION, EMPLOYMENT, AND INCOME 


Achieving a Better Life Experience Act (ABLE Act): 
Background and Implementation, by Kirsten J. 
Colello and William R. Morton. 2 p. (IF10363) 

Allocation of Funds Under Title I-A of the Elementary 
and Secondary Education Act, by Rebecca R. 
Skinner. 24 p. (R44461) 

Allocation of Funds Under Title I-A of the Elementary 
and Secondary Education Act: Formula Changes 
Under S. 1177 and H.R. 5, by Rebecca R. Skinner. 
38 p. (R44219) 

Amendments to the Higher Education Act in the 114th 
Congress: Current Legislation, by David R Smole, 
Alexandra Hegji and Benjamin Collins. 9 p. 
(R44558) 

Benefit Reductions in the Central States Multiemployer 
DB Pension Plan: Frequently Asked Questions, by 
Gary Sidor and John J. Topoleski. 8 p. (R44355) 

Borrower Defense to Repayment of Federal Student 
Loans, by Alexandra Hegji. 3 p. (IN10453) 

Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Act 
of2006: An Overview, by Boris Granovskiy. 29 p. 
(R44542) 

CCDBG Act of 2014: Key Provisions and 

Implementation Status, by Karen E. Lynch. 2 p. 
(IF10416) 

Chamber of Commerce and Others Challenge New 
Fiduciary Rule, by Jon O. Shimabukuro and 
Jennifer A. Staman. 1 p. (WSLG1614) 

The Closure of ITT Technical Institute, by Alexandra 
Hegji. 3 p. (IN10577) 

College and University Endowments: Overview and Tax 
Policy Options, by Molly F. Sherlock, Jeffrey M. 
Stupak, Margot L. Crandall-Hollick and Jane G. 
Gravelle. 27 p. (R44293) 

Court Finds Another State Law Preempted by ERISA, 
byjon O. Shimabukuro. 1 p. (WSLG1511) 


Declining Dynamism in the U.S. Labor Market, 
by David W. Perkins. 5 p. (IN10506) 

Department of Education Funding: Key Concepts 
and FAQj by Jessica Tollestrup and Heather B. 
Gonzalez. 20 p. (R44477) 

Department of Education’s Withdrawal of Its 

Recognition of ACICS as an Accrediting Agency, 
by Alexandra Hegji. 2 p. (IN10582) 

Departments of Education and Justice Release Guidance 
on Transgender Students, by Jody Feder. 1 p. 
(WSLG1576) 

DOL’s 2015 Proposed Fiduciary Rule on Investment 
Advice, by John J. Topoleski. 2 p. (IF10318) 

EB-5 Immigrant Investor Visa, by Carla N. Argueta, and 
Alison Siskin. 28 p. (R44475) 

The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) and 

ESEA Reauthorization: Summary of Selected Key 
Issues, by Rebecca R. Skinner. 2 p. (IF10333) 

The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) Child Labor 
Provisions, byjon O. Shimabukuro and Sarah A. 
Donovan. 19 p. (R44548) 

The Family and Medical Leave Act: An Overview 
of Title I, by Sarah A. Donovan. 26 p. (R44274) 

The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), by Sarah A. 
Donovan and Rodney M. Perry. 2 p. (IF10329) 

The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA): 

Background and Supreme Court Cases, by Rodney 
M. Perry. 8 p. (R44289) 

Federal Minimum Wage, Tax-Transfer Earnings 

Supplements, and Poverty, 2016 Update: In Brief, 
by Gene Falk. 13 p. (R44449) 

The Federal Perkins Loan Program Extension Act of 
2015: In Brief, by Alexandra Hegji. 12 p. (R44343) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


69 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


Federal Student Aid: Need Analysis Formulas and 
Expected Family Contribution, by Benjamin 
Collins. 35 p. (R44503) 

Federal Support for Graduate Medical Education: 

An Overview, by Elayne J. Heisler, Scott R. Talaga, 
Sidath Viranga Panangala, Don J. Jansen and 
Alison Mitchell. 24 p. (R44376) 

Fiscal Accountability Requirements That Apply to Title 
I-A of the Elementary and Secondary Education 
Act (ESEA), by Rebecca R. Skinner. 2 p. (IF10405) 

FLU Preview: Legal Developments in Education: 

Affirmative Action, Sexual Violence, and Gender 
Identity, by Jody Feder. 1 p. (WSLG1549) 

Foster Youth: Higher Education Outcomes and Federal 
Support, by Adrienne L. Fernandes-Alcantara. 2 p. 
(IF10449) 

Foster Youth: State Support for Higher Education, by 
Sarah W. Caldwell and Adrienne L. Fernandes- 
Alcantara. 2 p. (IF10450) 

The Fundamentals of Unemployment Compensation, 
by Katelin P. Isaacs and Julie M. Whittaker. 2 p. 
(IF10336) 

FY2016 State Grants Under Title I-A of the Elementary 
and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), 
by Rebecca R. Skinner. 1 p. (R44486) 

FY2017 Labor-HHS-Education Appropriations: 

Status and Issues, by Karen E. Lynch and Jessica 
Tollestrup. 5 p. (R44478) 

The Gender Earnings Gap, by Sarah A. Donovan. 

2 p. (IF10414) 

Gender Identity Discrimination in Public Education: 

A Legal Analysis, by Jody Feder. 6 p. (R44471) 

GI Bill Legislation Considered in the 114th Congress, 
by Cassandria Dortch. 21 p. (R44586) 

The H-2B Visa and the Statutory Cap: In Brief, 
by Andorra Bruno. 7 p. (R44306) 


How Much Slack Remains in the Labor Market?, 
by Jeffrey M. Stupak and Marc Labonte. 4 p. 
(IN10549) 

Impact Aid, Title VIII of the Elementary and Secondary 
Education Act: A Primer, by Rebecca R. Skinner. 
25 p. (R44221) 

Improving Child Nutrition Integrity and Access 

Act of 2016: In Brief, by Randy Alison Aussenberg. 
9 p. (R44373) 

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) 
Funding: A Primer, by Kyrie E. Dragoo. 30 p. 
(R44624) 

Interior Immigration Enforcement: Criminal Alien 
Programs, by William A. Kandel. 24 p. (R44627) 

Introduction to U.S. Economy: Unemployment, 
by Jeffrey M. Stupak. 2 p. (IF10443) 

Joint Employers and the National Labor Relations 
Board’s “Restated” Standard, by Jon O. 
Shimabukuro. 1 p. (WSLG1407) 

Labor Department Issues Final Rule on Fiduciaries and 
Investment Advice, by Jon O. Shimabukuro and 
Jennifer A. Staman. 1 p. (WSLG1562) 

Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education: 
FY2016 Appropriations, by Karen E. Lynch, 
Heather B. Gonzalez, David H. Bradley, Ada S. 
Cornell, Scott D. Szymendera and Angela Napili. 
51 p. (R44287) 

National Labor Relations Board Declines Jurisdiction 
Over Northwestern Football Players, by Jon O. 
Shimabukuro. 1 p. (WSLG1408) 

OSHA Penalties to Increase for the First Time in Nearly 
25 Years, by Rodney M. Perry. 1 p. (WSLG1478) 

OSHA Rule Makes Workplace Injury and Illness Data 
Publicly Available, by Rodney M. Perry. 1 p. 
(WSLG1585) 

Overview of ESEA Title I-A and the School Meals’ 
Community Eligibility Provision, by Randy 
Alison Aussenberg and Rebecca R. Skinner. 14 p. 
(R44568) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


70 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


An Overview of the Family and Medical Leave Act, 
by Rodney M. Perry and Sarah A. Donovan. 
(WPE2708) 

An Overview of the Family and Medical Leave Act, 
by Sarah A. Donovan and Rodney M. Perry. 
(WRE00129) 

An Overview of the Family and Medical Leave Act, 
by Sarah A. Donovan and Rodney M. Perry. 
(WVB00084) 

Pension Funds Stabilization Provisions in the Proposed 
Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015, by John J. 

Topoleski. 3 p. (IN10383) 

Pension Provisions in H.R. 1314, the Proposed Bipartisan 
Budget Act of 2015, by John J. Topoleski. 3 p. 
(IN10385) 

Reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary 

Education Act: Highlights of the Every Student 
Succeeds Act, by Jeffrey J. Kuenzi and Rebecca R. 
Skinner. 28 p. (R44297) 

Reauthorization of the Perkins Act in the 114th 

Congress: Comparison of Current Law and H.R. 
5587, by Boris Granovskiy. 13 p. (R44608) 

Respirable Crystalline Silica in the Workplace: New 
Occupational Safety and Health Administration 
(OSHA) Standards, by Scott D. Szymendera. 11 p. 
(R44476) 


Social Security Overview, by Dawn Nuschler. 2 p. 
(IF10426) 

Social Security Payroll Tax Reallocation Provision in the 
Proposed Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015, 
by William R. Morton. 3 p. (IN10386) 

Social Security’s Filing Rules: Recent Changes, by Dawn 
Nuschler. 2 p. (IF10435) 

Supreme Court Upholds University of Texas’s Affirmative 
Action Plan, by Jody Feder. 1 p. (WSLG1609) 

Trends in Child Care Spending from the CCDF 

and TANF, by Karen E. Lynch. 27 p. (R44528) 

Unemployment Compensation: The Fundamentals of the 
Federal Unemployment Tax, by Julie M. Whittaker. 
14 p. (R44527) 

U.S. Department of the Treasury Denial of Benefit 
Reductions in the Central States Pension Plan, 
by John J. Topoleski. 3 p. (IN10491) 

What Does the Gig Economy Mean for Workers?, by 
David H. Bradley, Sarah A. Donovan and Jon O. 
Shimabukuro. 16 p. (R44365) 

Workers’ Compensation: Overview and Issues for 
Congress, by Scott Symendera. (WPE2687) 

The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act and the 
One-Stop Delivery System, by David H. Bradley. 

43 p. (R44252) 


EMERGENCIES AND DISASTERS 


The Aliso Canyon Natural Gas Leak: Public Health and 
Environmental Impacts, by Richard K. Lattanzio. 

4 p. (IN 10448) 

The Aliso Canyon Natural Gas Leak: State and Federal 
Response and Oversight, by Paul W. Parfomak and 
Richard K. Lattanzio. 3 p. (IN10461) 

Fatal Balloon Accident Highlights Disagreement 
Between Safety Agencies, by Bart Elias. 2 p. 
(IN10543) 


Federal Flood Risk Management Standard (FFRMS), 
by Nicole T. Carter, Francis X. McCarthy and 
Jared T. Brown. 3 p. (IN10434) 

FEMA Disaster Housing: The Individuals and 

Households Program—Implementation and 
Potential Issues for Congress, by Francis X. 
McCarthy. 18 p. (R44619) 

Five Years of the Budget Control Act’s Disaster Relief 
Adjustment, by William L. Painter, Francis X. 
McCarthy and Bruce R. Lindsay. 16 p. (R44415) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


71 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


Individual Assistance Factors for a Major Disaster 
Declaration, by Francis X. McCarthy. 2 p. 
(IF10338) 

Introduction to FEMA’s National Flood Insurance 
Program (NFIP), by Jared T. Brown. 25 p. 

(R44593) 

Lead in Flint, Michigan’s Drinking Water: CRS Experts, 
by Jerry H. Yen. 3 p. (R44448) 

Lead in Flint, Michigan’s Drinking Water: Federal 
Regulatory Role, by Mary Tiemann. 3 p. 
(IN10446) 

Private Flood Insurance in the National Flood Insurance 
Program (NFIP), by Baird Webel 
and Jared T. Brown. 3 p. (IN10450) 


ENERGY, ENVIRONI 

Accelerated Repayment of Bureau of Reclamation 
Construction Costs, by Charles V. Stern. 2 p. 
(IF10295) 

The Aliso Canyon Natural Gas Leak: Public Health and 
Environmental Impacts, by Richard K. Lattanzio. 

4 p. (IN 10448) 

The Aliso Canyon Natural Gas Leak: State and Federal 
Response and Oversight, by Paul W. Parfomak and 
Richard K. Lattanzio. 3 p. (IN10461) 

Army Corps of Engineers: FY2017 Appropriations, 
by Charles V. Stern. 2 p. (IF10361) 

Automakers Seek to Align Fuel Economy and 

Greenhouse Gas Regulations, by Bill Canis. 

2 p. (IN 10550) 

Blackout! Are We Prepared to Manage the Aftermath of 
a Cyber-Attack or Other Failure of the Electrical 
Grid?, by Richard J. Campbell. 7 p. (TE10008) 

Bureau of Land Management: FY2017 Appropriations, 
by Carol Hardy Vincent. 2 p. (IF10381) 


SBA and CDBG-DR Duplication of Benefits in the 

Administration of Disaster Assistance: Background, 
Policy Issues, and Options for Congress, by Eugene 
Boyd and Bruce R. Lindsay. 16 p. (R44553) 

SBA Disaster Loan Program: Frequently Asked 

Questions, by Bruce R. Lindsay, lip. (R44412) 

Stafford Act Assistance and Acts of Terrorism, 

by Bruce R. Lindsay and Francis X. McCarthy. 

3 p. (IN10507) 

Wildfire Suppression Spending: Background, Issues, 
and Legislation in the 114th Congress, by Bill 
Heniff Jr., Katie Hoover and Francis X. McCarthy. 
(WPE10353) 

Wildfire Suppression Spending: Background, Issues, 
and Legislation Seminar, by Caryn L. Sever. 
(WVB00112) 

T, AND RESOURCES 

The Bureau of Ocean Energy Management’s Five- 

Year Program for Offshore Oil and Gas Leasing: 
History and Proposed Program for 2017-2022, 
by Laura B. Comay, Adam Vann and Marc 
Humphries. 28 p. (R44504) 

Bureau of Reclamation: FY2017 Appropriations, 
by Charles V. Stern. 2 p. (IF10375) 

Central Valley Project (CVP) Operations: In Brief, by 
Charles V. Stern, Betsy A. Cody and Pervaze A. 
Sheikh. 8 p. (R44456) 

Challenges and Opportunities for Oil and Gas 

Development in Different Price Environments, 
by Michael Ratner. 2 p. (TE10010) 

China’s Greenhouse Gas and Energy Proposals 

for 2016-2020, by Jane A. Leggett. 2 p. (IF10379) 

China’s Natural Gas: Uncertainty for Markets, by 

Michael Ratner, Susan V. Lawrence and Gabriel M. 
Nelson. 27 p. (R44483) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


72 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


Clean Power Plan: Legal Background and Pending 

Litigation in West Virginia v. EPA, by Alexandra M. 
Wyatt. 31 p. (R44480) 

Cleanup at Inactive and Abandoned Mines: Issues 
in “Good Samaritan” Legislation in the 114th 
Congress, by Claudia Copeland. 17 p. (R44285) 

Climate Change: Frequently Asked Questions about the 
2015 Paris Agreement, by Richard K. Lattanzio 
and Jane A. Leggett. 28 p. (R44609) 

Climate Change Pact Agreed in Paris, 
by jane A. Leggett. 3 p. (IN10413) 

Coal Use Already Near EPA’s 2030 Projection, 
byjames E. McCarthy. 3 p. (IN10578) 

Commercial Filming and Photography on Federal Lands, 
by Laura B. Comay. 2 p. (IF10340) 

Congress and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 2016, 
by Nicole T. Carter. 2 p. (IN 10424) 

Congressional Efforts to Amend the Toxic Substances 
Control Act (TSCA): House and Senate 
Negotiated Bill, by Jerry H. Yen. 3 p. (IN10494) 

Congressional Efforts to Amend Title I of the Toxic 
Substances Control Act (TSCA), by Jerry H. Yen. 

3 p. (IN 10430) 

Crude Oil Exports and Related Provisions in PL. 114- 
113: In Brief, by Phillip Brown, Molly F. Sherlock 
and John Frittelli. 10 p. (R44403) 

Dakota Access Pipeline: Siting Controversy, by Paul W. 
Parfomak. 3 p. (IN10567) 

The Department of the Interior’s Final Rule on Offshore 
Well Control, by Laura B. Comay. 

3 p. (IN 10484) 

Discount Rates in the Economic Evaluation of U.S. 

Army Corps of Engineers Projects, by Adam C. 
Nesbitt and Nicole T. Carter. 37 p. (R44594) 

DOE’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy 

Reliability (OE): A Primer, with Appropriations for 
FY2016, by Fred Sissine. 22 p. (R44357) 


Doubling Research and Development for Clean Energy: 
“Mission Innovation,” by Jane A. Leggett. 3 p. 
(IN10403) 

Ecosystem Restoration in the Puget Sound, by Charles V. 
Stern and Pervaze A. Sheikh. 3 p. (IF10334) 

Electric Grid Physical Security: Recent Legislation, 
by Paul W. Parfomak. 2 p. (IN10425) 

Energy and Water Development: FY2017 

Appropriations, by Mark Holt. 23 p. (R44465) 

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE): 

Appropriations and the FY2016 Budget Request, 
by Fred Sissine and Kelsi Bracmort. 12 p. (R44262) 

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE): 

Authorizations of Appropriations Proposed by the 
Energy Policy Modernization Act of 2015 
(S. 2012), by Kelsi Bracmort. 4 p. (R44284) 

Energy Legislation: Comparable Provisions in S. 2012 
as Passed by the House and Senate, by Brent D. 
Yacobucci and Mark Holt. 37 p. (R44569) 

Energy Legislation: Comparison of Selected Provisions 
in H.R. 8 and S. 2012, by Brent D. Yacobucci, 

Kelsi Bracmort, Richard J. Campbell, Bill Canis, 
Fred Sissine, Marc Humphries, Paul W. Parfomak, 
Robert Pirog, Michael Ratner, Phillip Brown and 
Peter Folger. 13 p. (R44291) 

The Environmental Protection Agency’s Clean Energy 
Incentive Program, by Jonathan L. Ramseur. 3 p. 
(IN10530) 

EPA Policies Concerning Integrated Planning and 

Affordability of Water Infrastructure, by Claudia 
Copeland. 8 p. (R44223) 

EPA’s Clean Energy Incentive Program: Background and 
Legal Developments, by Linda Tsang and Jonathan 
L. Ramseur. lip. (R44607) 

EPA’s Clean Power Plan for Existing Power Plants: 
Frequently Asked Questions, by Jonathan L. 
Ramseur, Jane A. Leggett, Alexandra M. Wyatt, 
Alissa M. Dolan and James E. McCarthy. 39 p. 
(R44341) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


73 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


EPA’s Clean Power Plan: Implications for the Electric 
Power Sector, by Richard J. Campbell. 28 p. 
(R44265) 

EPA’s First Time Revision of Clean Air Act “Emission 
Guidelines”Targets Municipal Landfills, 
by Linda Tsang. (WSLG1631) 

EPA’s Recent Methane Regulations: Legal Overview, 
by Linda Tsang. 13 p. (R44615) 

Everglades Restoration: Recent Developments 

and Legislation, by Charles V. Stern. 2 p. (IF10372) 

Evolution of the Meaning of “Waters of the United 
States” in the Clean Water Act, by Stephen P. 
Mulligan. 30 p. (R44585) 

Federal and State Regulatory Authority over Pipeline 
Transportation of Natural Gas and Crude Oil, 
by Brandon J. Murrill and Paul W. Parfomak. 
(WPE10284) 

Federal and State Regulatory Authority over Pipeline 
Transportation of Natural Gas and Crude Oil, 
by Paul W. Parfomak and Brandon J. Murrill. 
(WRE00151) 

Federal and State Regulatory Authority over Pipeline 
Transportation of Natural Gas and Crude Oil, 
by Paul W. Parfomak and Brandon J. Murrill. 
(WVB00110) 

The Federal Coal Leasing Moratorium, 
by Marc Humphries. 2 p. (IN10460) 

Federal Court Rules That Bureau of Land Management 
Likely Lacks Authority to Promulgate Fracking 
Rule, by Brandon J. Murrill. (WSLG1424) 

Federal Flood Risk Management Standard (FFRMS), 
by Nicole T. Carter, Francis X. McCarthy and Jared 
T. Brown. 3 p. (IN10434) 

Fish and Wildlife Service Seeks to Limit Trade in 
African Elephant Ivory with Revised Rule, 
by Brandon J. Murrill. (WSLG1606) 


FLU Preview: Clean Power Plan and Clean Water 

Rule: Litigation Update, by Alexandra M. Wyatt. 
(WSLG1541) 

FLU Preview: Energy and Environment Legal Update 
- Nuclear Waste Management and Methane 
Emission Regulations, by Alexandra M. Wyatt and 
Linda Tsang. (WSLG1636) 

Forest Service: FY2016 Discretionary Appropriations, 
by Katie Hoover. 2 p. (IF10370) 

Fresh Beef Import Rules for Brazil and Argentina, 
by Joel L. Greene. 2 p. (IF10373) 

The Global Climate Change Initiative (GCCI): Budget 
Authority and Request, FY2015 - FY2017, 
by Richard K. Lattanzio. 2 p. (IF10397) 

“Greening” EPA’s Water Infrastructure Programs through 
the Green Project Reserve, by Claudia Copeland. 

3 p. (IN10540) 

Harbor Deepening: Federal Studies and Construction 
Projects, by Nicole T. Carter and Adam C. Nesbitt. 
2 p. (IF10455) 

Higher Oil Prices?, by Robert Pirog. 2 p. (IF10388) 

History and Conflict at Malheur National Wildlife 
Refuge, by M. Lynne Corn. 3 p. (IN10427) 

How Broad Is the EPA’s General Waiver Authority 
under the Renewable Fuel Standard?, 
by Brandon J. Murrill. (WSLG1409) 

Hydropower: Comparison of Selected Provisions in S. 
2012, as Engrossed in the House, and S. 2012, as 
Engrossed in the Senate, by Kelsi Bracmort. 13 p. 
(R44523) 

Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies: FY2017 
Appropriations, by Carol Hardy Vincent. 10 p. 
(R44470) 

International Climate Change Negotiations: What 
to Expect in Paris, December 2015, by Jane A. 
Leggett. 12 p. (R44288) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


74 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


International Environmental Assistance: Green Climate 
Fund, by Richard K. Lattanzio. 2 p. (IF10382) 

Land and Water Conservation Fund (LWCF): Questions 
and Answers Related to Expired Provisions, 
by Carol Hardy Vincent and Bill Heniff Jr. 2 p. 
(IF10323) 

Lead in Flint, Michigan’s Drinking Water: CRS Experts, 
by Jerry H. Yen. 3 p. (R44448) 

Legal Status of CEQj Final Guidance on Climate 

Change in Environmental Reviews under NEPA, 
by Alexandra M. Wyatt. (WSLG1649) 

Methods of Estimating the Total Cost of Federal 

Regulations, by Maeve P. Carey. 28 p. (R44348) 

Microbeads: An Emerging Water Quality Issue, 
by Claudia Copeland. 2 p. (IF10451) 

Minding the Data Gap: NOAA’s Polar-Orbiting 
Weather Satellites and Strategies for Data 
Continuity, by Peter Folger. 10 p. (R44335) 

Natural Gas Discoveries in the Eastern Mediterranean, 
by Michael Ratner. 12 p. (R44591) 

New Climate Change Joint Announcement by China 
and the United States, by Jane A. Leggett. 2 p. 
(IF10296) 

Not Over ’Til It’s Over, Part 1: TransCanada to Seek 
115 Billion in NAFTA Lawsuit over Denial 
of Keystone XL Permit Request, by Brandon J. 
Murrill. (WSLG1482) 

Not Over ’Til It’s Over, Part 2: TransCanada Files 
Second Legal Challenge to State Department’s 
Keystone XL Permit Denial, by Adam Vann. 
(WSLG1483) 

Nuclear Waste Fund: Budgetary, Funding, and Scoring 
Issues, by David M. Bearden. 3 p. (TE10002) 

Obama Administration Rejects Keystone XL Pipeline 
Permit Request: Could Congress Nevertheless 
Approve It?, by Brandon J. Murrill. (WSLG1436) 

Ocean Energy Agency Appropriations, FY2016, by Marc 
Humphries and Laura B. Comay. lip. (R44312) 


Oil and Gas Pipeline Infrastructure and the Economic, 
Safety, Environmental, Permitting, Construction, 
and Maintenance Considerations Associated with 
That Infrastructure, by Paul W. Parfomak. 2 p. 
(TE10011) 

Oil Prices and the Value of the Dollar, by Robert Pirog. 

2 p. (IF10386) 

Oil Producing Countries Ministerial Meeting: 

Background, Results, and Market Implications, by 
Robert Pirog and Phillip Brown. 5 p. (IN10479) 

Oil to Spare: The House Passes a Repeal of Crude Oil 
Export Restrictions, by Adam Vann. (WSLG1419) 

Overview of CEQ_Guidance on Greenhouse Gases and 
Climate Change, by Linda Luther. 3 p. (IN10554) 

Overview of EPA Standards for “Coal Ash” Disposal, 
by Linda Luther. 3 p. (IN10583) 

Paris Agreement: United States, China Move to Become 
Parties to Climate Change Treaty, by Jane A. 
Leggett. 4 p. (IN10568) 

The Pesticide Registration Improvement Extension Act 
of 2012 (PRIA 3, PL. 112-177): Authorization to 
Collect Fees, by Robert Esworthy and Jerry H. Yen. 
2 p. (IF10424) 

Pipelines: Securing the Veins of the American Economy, 
by Paul W. Parfomak. 13 p. (TE10009) 

Pipeline Transportation of Natural Gas and Crude Oil: 
Federal and State Regulatory Authority, 
by Brandon J. Murrill. 25 p. (R44432) 

Policy Issues Involving Food Loss and Waste, 
by Renee Johnson. 2 p. (IF10317) 

Proposed Amendments to the Toxic Substances Control 
Act (TSCA) in the 114th Congress: H.R. 2576 
Compared with the Senate Substitute Amendment, 
by Alexandra M. Wyatt and Jerry H. Yen. 59 p. 
(R44434) 

Racing to Regulate: EPA’s Latest Overreach on Amateur 
Drivers, by Brent D. Yacobucci. 4 p. (TE10007) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


75 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


Recovery Act Funding for DOE Carbon Capture and 

Sequestration (CCS) Projects, by Peter Folger. 20 p. 
(R44387) 

Regulating Lead in Drinking Water: Issues and 

Developments, by Mary Tiemann. 2 p. (IF10446) 

Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS): Final Rule for 2014, 
2015, and 2016, by Kelsi Bracmort. 3 p. (IN10405) 

Renewable Identification Numbers (RINs) and 

Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) Compliance, 
by Kelsi Bracmort. 3 p. (IN10576) 

Respirable Crystalline Silica in the Workplace: New 
Occupational Safety and Health Administration 
(OSHA) Standards, by Scott D. Szymendera. 11 p. 
(R44476) 

Role of the National Weather Service and Selected 

Legislation in the 114th Congress, by Peter Folger. 
12 p. (R44583) 

Sage-Grouse Conservation: Background and Issues, 
by M. Lynne Corn, Carol Hardy Vincent and 
Katie Hoover. 14 p. (R44592) 

Sea-Level Rise and U.S. Coasts, by Peter Folger and 
Nicole T. Carter. 2 p. (IF10468) 

Sea-Level Rise and U.S. Coasts: Science and Policy 
Considerations, by Peter Folger and Nicole T. 
Carter. 36 p. (R44632) 

Sixth Circuit Halts “Waters of the United States” Rule 
Nationwide, Before Deciding Whether 
It Has Jurisdiction, by Sarah S. Herman and 
Alexandra M. Wyatt. (WSLG1416) 

Sixth Circuit Will Hear Challenges to EPA’s Clean 
Water Act Jurisdiction (“Waters of the United 
States”) Rule, but Litigation Uncertainties Remain 
Unresolved, by Alexandra M. Wyatt. (WSLG1503) 

Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) 
Regulations: Background and Issues for Congress, 
by Jonathan L. Ramseur. 7 p. (R44536) 

The State Department Releases Its Final EIS for the 
Keystone XL Pipeline. What’s Next?, by Linda 
Luther. 2 p. (IF10462) 


The State Department’s Final Decision on the Keystone 
XL Pipeline, by Linda Luther. 2 p. (IN 10393) 

State Management of Federal Lands: Frequently Asked 
Questions, by Alexandra M. Wyatt and Carol 
Hardy Vincent. 9 p. (R44267) 

State Programs for “Coal Ash” Disposal in 
WRDA 2016, by Linda Luther. 3 p. 

(IN10585) 

Suspending Review of the Keystone XL Pipeline Permit?, 
by Paul W. Parfomak. 2 p. (IN10390) 

U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emission Trends and the Role of 
the Clean Power Plan, by Jonathan L. Ramseur. 17 
p. (R44451) 

U.S. Crude Oil Exports to International Destinations, 
by Phillip Brown. 4 p. (IN10472) 

U.S. Crude Oil Exports to International Destinations, 
by Phillip Brown. 4 p. (IN10536) 

USDA Initiative Is Funding New Ethanol Infrastructure, 
by Mark A. McMinimy. 2 p. (IF10377) 

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): FY2017 
President’s Budget Request, by Robert Esworthy 
and David M. Bearden. 2 p. (IF10383) 

U.S. LNG Exports from the Lower 48, by Joseph 
Schnide and Michael Ratner. 4 p. (IN10525) 

U.S. Natural Gas Exports and the Trans-Pacific 

Partnership (TPP) Agreement, by Michael Ratner 
and Paul W. Parfomak. 3 p. (IN10375) 

Volkswagen, Defeat Devices, and the Clean Air Act: 
Frequently Asked Questions, by Bill Canis, 

Brent D. Yacobucci, Adam Vann and Richard K. 
Lattanzio. 13 p. (R44372) 

Water Resources Development Act of 2016: Army Corps 
of Engineers Provisions in H.R. 5303 and S. 2848, 
by Nicole T. Carter. 3 p. (IN10510) 

Water Resources Development Act of 2016: Clean Water 
Act and Infrastructure Financing Provisions in S. 
2848, by Claudia Copeland. 

3 p. (IN10522) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


76 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


Water Resources Development Act of 2016: H.R. 5303 
and S. 2848, by Nicole T. Carter. 3 p. (IN10579) 

Water Resources Development Act of 2016: 

Infrastructure, Lead, and Other Drinking Water 
Provisions in S. 2848, by Mary Tiemann. 2 p. 
(IF10432) 

Water Use Efficiency Legislation in the 114th Congress, 
by Claudia Copeland. 8 p. (R44482) 

Western Drought Legislation, by Pervaze A. Sheikh and 
Charles V. Stern. 3 p. (IN10503) 

Western Water and Drought: Legislative Analysis of 
H.R. 2898 and S. 1894, by Pervaze A. Sheikh, 
Nicole T. Carter, Charles V. Stern, Betsy A. Cody, 
Linda Luther and Claudia Copeland. 

46 p. (R44316) 

While the Clean Power Plan Is Stayed, EPA 

Moves Forward with the Clean Energy Incentive 
Program, by Linda Tsang. (WSLG1626) 

Who Has the Power? Supreme Court Again Attempts 
to Clarify the Relationship Between Federal and 
State Authority to Regulate the Nation’s Electricity 
Markets, by Brandon J. Murrill. (WSLG1599) 


Wildfire Suppression Spending: Background, Issues, 
and Legislation in the 114th Congress, 
by Bill HenifFJr., Katie Hoover and Francis X. 
McCarthy. (WPE10353) 

Wildfire Suppression Spending: Background, Issues, 
and Legislation Seminar, by Caryn L. Sever. 
(WVB00112) 

Wildlife Poaching and Trafficking in Asia: An Overview, 
by Pervaze A. Sheikh and Liana W. Rosen. 2 p. 
(IF10305) 

Wildlife Poaching in Africa: An Overview, by Liana 
W. Rosen, Pervaze A. Sheikh, Tomas F. Husted, 
Lauren Ploch Blanchard and Alexis Arieffi 2 p. 

(IF10330) 

WRDA 2016: Clean Water Act and Infrastructure 
Financing Provisions in Senate-passed S. 2848, 
by Claudia Copeland. 2 p. (IF10471) 

WRDA 2016: Infrastructure, Lead, and Other Safe 

Drinking Water Act Provisions in Senate-Passed S. 
2848, by Mary Tiemann. 2 p. (IF10474) 


FEDERAL GOVERNMENT 


Access to Digital Data: The Legal Debate over 
Government Surveillance and Encryption, 
by Richard M. Thompson II. (WRE00140) 

Advanced Legislative Process Institute, by Christopher 
M. Davis, Valerie Heitshusen, Bill HenifFJr., 
Megan S. Lynch, Mark J. Oleszek, Elizabeth 
Rybicki, Judy Schneider, Jessica Tollestrup and 
Walter J. Oleszek. (WPE2706) 

Advanced Legislative Process Institute, by Megan S. 
Lynch, Walter J. Oleszek, Elizabeth Rybicki, 
Judy Schneider, Bill HenifFJr., Mark J. Oleszek, 
Christopher M. Davis, Valerie Heitshusen and 
Jessica Tollestrup. (WPE2697) 


Advanced Legislative Process Institute: November 19-20, 

2015, by Elizabeth Rybicki, Valerie Heitshusen, 
MarkJ. Oleszek, Jessica Tollestrup, Judy Schneider, 
Bill HenifFJr., Christopher M. Davis, Megan S. 
Lynch, Walter J. Oleszek and MarkJ. Oleszek. 
(WPE2700) 

Agency Final Rules Submitted After May 16, 

2016, May Be Subject to Disapproval in 2017 
Under the Congressional Review Act, by Richard S. 
Beth and Christopher M. Davis. 3 p. (IN10437) 

Amending Senate Rules at the Start of a New Congress, 
1953-1975: An Analysis with an Afterword to 
2015, by Walter J. Oleszek. 96 p. (R44395) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


77 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


The Article V Convention to Propose Constitutional 
Amendments: Current Developments, by Thomas 
H. Neale. 16 p. (R44435) 

Authorizing New Additions to Memorials in the District 
of Columbia: Issues for Consideration, by Jacob R. 
Straus. 2 p. (IF10448) 

Authorizing New Additions to Memorials in the District 
of Columbia: Issues for Consideration, by Jacob R. 
Straus. 3 p. (IN10452) 

Campaign Contributions and the Ethics of Elected 
Officials: Regulation Under Federal Law, by 
L. Paige Whitaker, Jack Maskell and Cynthia 
Brown. 17 p. (R44447) 

Campaign Finance: Office Hours, by Erika K. Lunder, L. 
Paige Whitaker and R. Sam Garrett. (WPE10036) 

Can Agencies Take Actions That They Are Not Expressly 
Authorized by Statute to Take?, by Kate M. 
Manuel. 1 p. (WSLG1523) 

Class Action Litigation: The Court and Congress, 
by Kenneth R. Thomas. 14 p. (R44453) 

Commemorative Days, Weeks, and Months: Background 
and Current Practice, by Jared C. Nagel and Jacob 
R. Straus. 14 p. (R44431) 

Congress: An Introduction to Process and Resources, 

by Christopher M. Davis, Mark J. Oleszek, Jennifer 
Manning and Michele L. Malloy. (WPE2743) 

Congress: An Introduction to Process and Resources, 

by Christopher M. Davis, Mark J. Oleszek, Jennifer 
Manning and Michele L. Malloy. (WPE10042) 

Congress: An Introduction to Process and Resources, 
by Ida A. Brudnick, Mark J. Oleszek, Christina 
Miracle Bailey and Michele L. Malloy. 
(WPE10293) 

Congress: An Introduction to Process and Resources, 
by Ida A. Brudnick, Richard S. Beth, Jennifer E. 
Manning and Emily E. Roberts. (WPE10207) 


Congress: An Introduction to Process and Resources, 

by Jacob R. Straus, Christopher M. Davis, Emily E. 
Roberts and Michele L. Malloy. (WPE10328) 

Congress: An Introduction to Process and Resources, 
by Jacob R. Straus, Elizabeth Rybicki, Jennifer E. 
Manning and Sarah W. Caldwell. (WPE10368) 

Congress: An Introduction to Process and Resources, 
by Jacob R. Straus, Elizabeth Rybicki, Susan G. 
Chesser and Sarah W. Caldwell. (WPE10245) 

Congress: An Introduction to Process and Resources, 
by Jacob R. Straus, Valerie Heitshusen, Christina 
M. Bailey and Emily E. Roberts. (WPE10146) 

Congress: An Introduction to Process and Resources, 
by Jennifer E. Manning, Sarah W. Caldwell, 

Richard S. Beth and Mark J. Oleszek. (WPE10035) 

Congress: An Introduction to Process and Resources, 

by Matthew E. Glassman, James V. Saturno, Emily 
E. Roberts and Michele L. Malloy. (WPE10244) 

Congress: An Introduction to Process and Resources, 

by Richard S. Beth, Sarah W. Caldwell, Jennifer E. 
Manning and Mark J. Oleszek. (WPE2721) 

Congress: An Introduction to Process and Resources, 
by Valerie Heitshusen, Elizabeth Rybicki, Jennifer 
E. Manning and Michele L. Malloy. (WPE2744) 

Congress: An Introduction to Process and Resources 
(hosted in Russell CRS Senate Center), 
by Christopher M. Davis, Matthew E. Glassman, 
Sarah W. Caldwell and Jerry W. Mansfield. 
(WPE10181) 

Congress: An Introduction to Process and Resources 
(hosted in Russell CRS Senate Center), 
by Matthew E. Glassman, Christopher M. Davis, 
Jerry W. Mansfield and Sarah W. Caldwell. 
(WPE10206) 

The Congressional Review Act, by Alissa M. Dolan, 
Christopher M. Davis and Maeve P. Carey. 
(WPE2714) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


78 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


The Congressional Review Act, by Maeve R Carey, 
Christopher M. Davis and Alissa M. Dolan. 
(WRE00127) 

The Congressional Review Act, by Maeve P. Carey, 
Christopher M. Davis and Alissa M. Dolan. 
(WVB00082) 

Contested Presidential Nominating Conventions: Brief 
Background and Questions, by R. Sam Garrett. 3 p. 
(IN10478) 

Continuing Resolutions: Components and Procedures for 
Congressional Consideration, by James V. Saturno. 
(WPE10363) 

Creating a Federal Advisory Committee in the Executive 
Branch, by Wendy Ginsberg, lip. (R44232) 

DC Circuit Holds an Agency Official’s Private Email 
Account Not Beyond the Reach of FOIA, by Gina 
Stevens. 1 p. (WSLG1637) 

Deeming Resolutions: Budget Enforcement in the 
Absence of a Budget Resolution, by Megan S. 
Lynch. 18 p. (R44296) 

Discharging a Senate Committee from Consideration 
of a Nomination, by Elizabeth Rybicki. 3 p. 
(IN10468) 

Disposal of Unneeded Federal Buildings: Legislative 

Proposals in the 114th Congress, by Garrett Hatch. 
17 p. (R44377) 

Economic Effects of the FY2014 Shutdown, by Marc 
Labonte. 1 p. (IG10003) 

Electing the Speaker of the House of Representatives: 
Frequently Asked Questions, by Valerie 
Heitshusen. 3 p. (R44243) 

Election 2016: Political Corruption and Campaign 
Activity, by Cynthia Brown and Jack Maskell. 
(WVB00099) 

Election 2016: Political Corruption and Campaign 
Activity, by Jack Maskell and Cynthia Brown. 
(WRE00143) 


Election 2016: Redistricting, Voting, and Campaign 
Finance, by L. Paige Whitaker. (WRE00142) 

Election 2016: Redistricting, Voting, and Campaign 
Finance, by L. Paige Whitaker. (WVB00098) 

Election and Voting Law: Resources for Congressional 
Staff, by Elizabeth A. Schiller. 7 p. (R44628) 

The Evolving Congress: Organizing for Legislative 

Business, by Walter J. Oleszek, Michael L. Koempel 
and Judy Schneider. (WRE00125) 

The Evolving Congress: Organizing for Legislative 

Business, by Walter J. Oleszek, Michael L. Koempel 
and Judy Schneider. (WVB00079) 

The Federal Advisory Committee Act: Analysis of 

Operations and Costs, by Wendy Ginsberg. 40 p. 
(R44248) 

Federal Advisory Committees: An Introduction and 
Overview, by Wendy Ginsberg. 22 p. (R44253) 

The Federal Cybersecurity Workforce: Background 
and Congressional Oversight Issues for the 
Departments of Defense and Homeland Security, 
by Kathryn A. Francis and Wendy Ginsberg. 26 p. 
(R44364) 

The Federal Cybersecurity Workforce: Background 
and Congressional Oversight Issues for the 
Departments of Defense and Homeland Security, 
by Wendy Ginsberg and Kathryn A. Francis. 26 p. 
(R44338) 

The Federal Election Commission: Enforcement Process 
and Selected Issues for Congress, by 
R. Sam Garrett. 15 p. (R44319) 

The Federal Election Commission: Overview and 

Selected Issues for Congress, by R. Sam Garrett. 

30 p. (R44318) 

The Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) 

Program: Open Season for the 2016 Plan Year, by 
Ada S. Cornell and Kirstin B. Blom. 2 p. (IF10324) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


79 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


The Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform 
Act (FITARA): Frequently Asked Questions, by 
Patricia Moloney Figliola. 6 p. (R44462) 

Federal Real Property Data: Limitations and Implications 
for Oversight, by Garrett Hatch. 10 p. (R44286) 

Federal Reserve: Legislation in the 114th Congress, 
by Marc Labonte. 13 p. (R44273) 

Final Senate Action on U.S. Circuit and District Court 
Nominations During a President’s Eighth Year in 
Office, by Barry J. McMillion. lip. (R44353) 

FLU Preview: Criminal Prosecutions Involving Classified 
Information, by Edward C. Liu and Charles Doyle. 
1 p. (WSLG1656) 

FLU Preview: Election 2016: Political Corruption and 
Campaign Activity, by Jack Maskell and Cynthia 
Brown. 1 p. (WSLG1551) 

FLU Preview: Election 2016: Redistricting, Voting, and 
Campaign Finance, by L. Paige Whitaker. 1 p. 
(WSLG1550) 

FLU Preview: Issues of Professional Responsibility for 
Congressional Counsel and Lobbyists, by Cynthia 
Brown. 1 p. (WSLG1410) 

The Freedom of Information Act Turns Fifty &Is 
Revised, by Gina Stevens. 1 p. (WSLG1611) 

Friended, but not Friends: Federal Ethics Authorities 
Address Role of Social Media in Politics, 
by Cynthia Brown. 1 p. (WSLG1552) 

From Bill to Law: Stages of the Legislative 

Process, by Jennifer E. Manning and Valerie 
Heitshusen. 1 p. (IG10005) 

FY2017 Appropriations for the Census Bureau and 
Bureau of Economic Analysis, by Jennifer D. 
Williams. 16 p. (R44567) 

GAO Decision Raises New Questions about VA 
Contracting with Veteran-Owned Small 
Businesses, by Kate M. Manuel. 1 p. (WSLG1506) 


Hatch Act Restrictions on Federal Employees’ Political 
Activities in the Digital Age, by Jack Maskell and 
Cynthia Brown. 14 p. (R44469) 

Helping U.S. Citizens Abroad During a Crisis: Role of 
the Department of State, by Alex Tiersky. 

2 p. (IF10346) 

History and Conflict at Malheur National Wildlife 
Refuge, by M. Lynne Corn. 3 p. (IN10427) 

How Can the Results of a Presidential Election Be 

Contested?, by Jack Maskell and L. Paige Whitaker. 
1 p. (WSLG1650) 

How Is the “Total Value” of All Prime Contract Awards 
to Be Determined for Purposes of 
the Federal Government’s Small Business Goaling 
Reports?, by Kate M. Manuel. 1 p. (WSLG1592) 

Independent Bids for President, by Jack Maskell, 

L. Paige Whitaker. 1 p. (WSLG1474) 

Kingdomware Technologies, Inc. v. United States'. A Case 
of Statutory Interpretation and Its Implications for 
Federal Contracting, by L. Elaine Halchin, Kate M. 
Manuel and Robert Jay Dilger. 17 p. (R44401) 

Legislative Branch: FY2017 Appropriations, by Ida A. 
Brudnick. 30 p. (R44515) 

Linking with Constituents: Presentation of Social Media 
on Member of Congress Websites, by Matthew E. 
Glassman and Jacob R. Straus. 2 p. (IF10299) 

The Lobbying Disclosure Act at 20: Analysis and Issues 
for Congress, by Jacob R. Straus. 38 p. (R44292) 

Master the Legislative Process, by Christopher M. Davis. 
(WPE10269) 

Master the Legislative Process, by Elizabeth Rybicki. 
(WPE10256) 

Master the Legislative Process, by Thomas J. Wickham. 
(WPE10384) 

Methods of Estimating the Total Cost of Federal 

Regulations, by Maeve P. Carey. 28 p. (R44348) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


80 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


Midnight Rules: Congressional Oversight 

and Options, by Maeve R Carey. 2 p. (IN10516) 

Minding the Data Gap: NOAA’s Polar-Orbiting 
Weather Satellites and Strategies for Data 
Continuity, by Peter Folger. 10 p. (R44335) 

The Motion to Recommit in the House of Representatives, 
by Megan S. Lynch. 10 p. (R44330) 

Nominations to the Supreme Court During Presidential 
Election Years (1900-Present), by Barry J. 
McMillion. 3 p. (IN10455) 

Nominations to the Supreme Court During Years of 

Divided and Unified Party Government, by Barry J. 
McMillion. 3 p. (IN10458) 

OPM Announces Premium Increase in the Federal 

Long-Term Care Insurance Program, by Kirsten J. 
Colello. 3 p. (IN10560) 

Overview of Funding Mechanisms in the Federal 

Budget Process, and Selected Examples, by Jessica 
Tollestrup. 37 p. (R44582) 

An Overview of the Department of Labor’s Proposed 
Fiduciary Rule, by John J.Topoleski and Jon O. 
Shimabukuro. (WPE2711) 

Partisanship and Population Equality: Supreme Court 
Will Hear Oral Arguments in Harris v. Arizona 
Independent Redistricting Commission on December 
8, by L. Paige Whitaker. 1 p. (WSLG1444) 

Post-Committee Adjustment in the Modern House: 

The Use of Rules Committee Prints, by Mark J. 
Oleszek. 15 p. (R44362) 

PROMESA (H.R. 4900) and Puerto Rico, by D. Andrew 
Austin. 2 p. (IN10485) 

Provisions of the Senate Amendment to H.R. 3762, 
by Annie L. Mach, Evelyne P. Baumrucker, 

Patricia A. Davis, Bernadette Fernandez, Elayne 
J. Heisler, Julie M. Whittaker, Sarah A. Lister, 

Erika K. Lunder, Alison Mitchell, Paulette C. 
Morgan, James V. Saturno, Namrata K. Uberoi, 

Erin Bagalman and Suzanne M. Kirchhoffi 24 p. 
(R44300) 


Puerto Rico: CRS Experts, by D. Andrew Austin. 5 p. 
(R44336) 

Puerto Rico’s Fiscal Situation, by D. Andrew Austin, 
Eugene Boyd, Alison Mitchell, Carol A. Pettit, 
Kenneth R. Thomas and R. Sam Garrett. 
(WPE2719) 

Reforming the U.S. Postal Service: Background 
and Issues for Congress, by Michelle D. 
Christensen, Garrett Hatch and Kathryn A. 
Francis. 46 p. (R44603) 

Robocalls and Robotexts to Mobile Phones: No 

Exemption for Political Campaigns, by Kathleen 
Ann Ruane. 1 p. (WSLG1567) 

Senate Action on U.S. Circuit and District Court 
Nominations During the Eighth Year of a 
Presidency, by Barry J. McMillion. 5 p. (IN10519) 

Senate Committee Rules in the 114th Congress: 

Key Provisions, by Valerie Heitshusen. 28 p. 
(R44369) 

Senate Judiciary Committee Hearings for Supreme 
Court Nominations: Historical Overview 
and Data, by Barry J. McMillion. 4 p. (IN10476) 

Senate Legislative Concepts: Legislative Documents, 
by Christopher M. Davis and Christina Miracle 
Bailey. (WPE10182) 

Senators’Official Personnel and Office Expense Account 
(SOPOEA): History and Usage, by 
Ida A. Brudnick. lip. (R44399) 

Separation of Powers: An Overview, by Matthew E. 
Glassman. 20 p. (R44334) 

Smithsonian Institution: Background and Issues 

for Congress, by R. Eric Petersen. 8 p. (R44370) 

Social Media in Congress: The Impact of Electronic 

Media on Member Communications, by Matthew 
E. Glassman and Jacob R. Straus. 

20 p. (R44509) 

Spending and Tax Expenditures: Distinctions and Major 
Programs, by Grant A. Driessen. 15 p. (R44530) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


81 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in House 

Committees, 2001-2014, by R. Eric Petersen and 
Lara E. Chausow. 17 p. (R44322) 

Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in House Member 
Offices, 2001-2014, by R. Eric Petersen and Lara 
E. Chausow. 19 p. (R44323) 

Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in Senate 

Committees, FY2001-FY2014, by R. Eric Petersen 
and Lara E. Chausow. 20 p. (R44325) 

Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in Senators’ 

Offices, FY2001-FY2014, by R. Eric Petersen and 
Lara E. Chausow. 23 p. (R44324) 

Statements of Administration Policy, by Meghan M. 
Stuessy. 16 p. (R44539) 

Statutorily Required Federal Advisory Committees that 
Began Operations in FY2015, by Casey Burgat and 
Wendy Ginsberg. 3 p. (IN10589) 

Supreme Court Appointment Process: Consideration 
by the Senate Judiciary Committee, by Barry J. 
McMillion. 20 p. (R44236) 

Supreme Court Appointment Process: President’s 

Selection of a Nominee, by Barry J. McMillion. 

23 p. (R44235) 

Supreme Court Appointment Process: Senate Debate 
and Confirmation Vote, by Barry J. McMillion. 

24 p. (R44234) 

Supreme Court: Length of the Scalia Vacancy in 

Historical Context, by Barry J. McMillion. 3 p. 
(IN10559) 

Supreme Court to Consider a Second Redistricting 
Case in 2016 Term, by L. Paige Whitaker. 1 p. 
(WSLG1666) 

Supreme Court to Hear Oral Arguments in VA 
Contracting Case, by Kate M. Manuel. 1 p. 
(WSLG1479) 


Supreme Court Vacancies That Arose During One 
Presidency and Were Filled During a Different 
Presidency, by Barry J. McMillion. 3 p. (IN10469) 

A Survey of House and Senate Committee Rules on 

Subpoenas, by Michael L. Koempel. 13 p. (R44247) 

Three-Judge Court Must Be Convened In Constitutional 
Challenges to Redistricting Maps, by L. Paige 
Whitaker. 1 p. (WSLG1470) 

Tracing Federal Regulations, by Barbara J. Bavis. 
(WPE10254) 

Tracing Federal Regulations, by Barbara J. Bavis. 
(WPE10281) 

Tracing Federal Regulations, by Barbara J. Bavis. 
(WPE10373) 

Treasury Issues White Paper on Fintech and Marketplace 
Lending, by Edward V. Murphy. 3 p. (IN10492) 

Unique Identification Codes for Federal Contractors: 
DUNS Numbers and CAGE Codes, by Elaine 
Halchin. 18 p. (R44490) 

U.S. Circuit Court Vacancies: Overview and Comparative 
Analysis, by Barry J. McMillion. 4 p. (IN10505) 

U.S. District Court Vacancies: Overview and 

Comparative Analysis, by Barry J. McMillion. 4 p. 
(IN10504) 

U.S. Postal Service Rolls Back Its Prices, by Alex J. 
Marine. 4 p. (IN10475) 

When Is a Three-Judge Court Required In a 

Redistricting Case?, by L. Paige Whitaker. 1 p. 
(WSLG1449) 

The Yahoo! Data Breach—Issues for Congress, by N. Eric 
Weiss. 2 p. (IN10586) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


82 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


FOREIGN POLICY 


2015 Leaders’ Summit on U.N. Peacekeeping, by Luisa 
Blanchfield and Matthew C. Weed. 3 p. (IN10370) 

The 2016 G-20 Summit, by Rebecca M. Nelson. 3 p. 
(IN10565) 

After Brexit: A Diminished or Enhanced EU?, by Kristin 
Archick. 3 p. (IN10518) 

Aiding Israel after the Iran Nuclear Deal: Issues 

for Congress, by Jeremy M. Sharp. 3 p. (IN10387) 

A1 Qaeda’s Syria Affiliate Declares Independence, by 
Christopher M. Blanchard and Carla E. Humud. 

3 p. (IN 10548) 

Arbitration Case Between the Philippines and China 
Under the United Nations Convention on the 
Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), by Ronald O’Rourke, 
Thomas Lum, Susan V. Lawrence and Ben Dolven. 
17 p. (R44555) 

Argentina’s 2015 Presidential Election, by Mark P. 
Sullivan. 2 p. (IN10378) 

Assessing Burma’s Parliamentary Elections, by Michael F. 
Martin. 2 p. (IF10314) 

Assessing Taiwan’s Presidential and Legislative Elections, 
by Susan V. Lawrence. (WPE2741) 

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), 
by Ben Dolven. 2 p. (IF10348) 

Aung San Suu Kyi’s Party Takes Control of Parliament in 
Burma, by Michael F. Martin. 3 p. (IN10441) 

Australia Elections 2016, by Bruce Vaughn. 3 p. 
(IN10532) 

Brazil in Crisis, by Peter J. Meyer. 3 p. (IN10471) 

The Brexit Vote: Political Fallout in the United Kingdom, 
by Derek E. Mix. 2 p. (IN10528) 

Burkina Faso, by Tomas F. Husted and Alexis Arieffi 2 p. 
(IF10434) 


Burma Holds Peace Conference, by Michael F. Martin. 

2 p. (IN10566) 

Burma’s 2015 Parliamentary Elections: Issues for 

Congress, by Michael F. Martin. 26 p. (R44436) 

Burma’s Parliamentary Elections, by Michael F. Martin. 

3 p. (IN10397) 

Burma’s Peace Process: Challenges Ahead, by Michael F. 
Martin. 2 p. (IF10417) 

Burma’s Union Parliament Selects New President, 
by Michael F. Martin. 3 p. (IN10464) 

Canadian Prime Minister Trudeau’s State Visit, March 
2016, by Peter J. Meyer and Ian F. Fergusson. 3 p. 
(IN10459) 

Central African Republic: Current Issues, by Alexis 
Arieffi and Emily Renard. 2 p. (IF10369) 

China: Economic Sanctions, by Dianne E. Rennack. 34 p. 
(R44605) 

China’s Hukou System: Overview, Reform, and 

Economic Implications, by Candy Meza and 
Wayne M. Morrison. 2 p. (IF10344) 

China’s Status as a Nonmarket Economy (NME), 
by Wayne M. Morrison. 2 p. (IF10385) 

Closing Space: Restrictions on Civil Society Around the 
World and U.S. Responses, by Emily Renard and 
Alex Tiersky. 25 p. (R44458) 

Colombian Peace Talks Breakthrough: A Possible 
End-Game?, by June S. Beittel. 3 p. (IN10372) 

Counting Casualties in Syria and Iraq: Process and 

Challenges, by Carla E. Humud, Susan G. Chesser 
and Rhoda Margesson. 4 p. (IN10474) 

Department of State and Foreign Operations 

Appropriations: History of Legislation and 
Funding in Brief, by Susan B. Epstein. 11 p. 
(R44637) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


83 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


DOJ Brings Forfeiture Action to Seize and Return 
II Billion Embezzled Malaysian Government 
Assets, by M. Maureen Murphy. 1 p. (WSLG1638) 

Dominican Republic, by Clare Ribando Seelke. 2 p. 
(IF10407) 

Dominican Republic: Update on Citizenship and 

Humanitarian Issues, by Rhoda Margesson and 
Clare Ribando Seelke. 3 p. (IN10483) 

Ebola in West Africa: Issues with Elimination, by Tiaji 
Salaam-Blyther. 2 p. (IF10300) 

Ecuador: In Brief, by June S. Beittel. 10 p. (R44294) 

Elections in Haiti, by Maureen Taft-Morales. 2 p. 
(IN10377) 

Eritrea, by Tomas F. Husted and Lauren Ploch 
Blanchard. 2 p. (IF10466) 

Escalating Violence in El Salvador, by Clare Ribando 
Seelke. 2 p. (IN10382) 

Eurasian Economic Union, by Gabriel M. Nelson. 

2 p. (IF10309) 

The European Union (EU): Current Challenges and 

Future Prospects in Brief, by Kristin Archick. 13 p. 
(R44249) 

EU State Aid and Apple’s Taxes, by Jane G. Gravelle. 2 p. 
(IN10561) 

The EU-U.S. Safe Harbor Agreement on Personal Data 
Privacy: In Brief, by Kristin Archick and Martin A. 
Weiss. 13 p. (R44257) 

Fethullah Gulen, Turkey, and the United States: 

A Reference, by Jim Zanotti. 2 p. (IF10444) 

The Fight Against A1 Shabaab in Somalia in 2016, 
by Lauren Ploch Blanchard. 2 p. (IN 10432) 

FLU Preview: International Law and the U.S. 

Legal System - Congress’s Role in 
Foreign Affairs, by Jennifer K. Elsea. 1 p. 
(WSLG1403) 


Forced Labor Trafficking in the International Fishing 
Sector, by Liana W. Rosen and Mary Jane Bolle. 

2 p. (IF10368) 

Former U.S. Hostages of Iran to be Eligible for 
Compensation, by Jennifer K. Elsea. 1 p. 
(WSLG1471) 

FY2017 Defense Budget: Issues for Congress, by 
Kristy N. Kamarck, Kathleen J. Mclnnis, Pat 
Towell, Ronald O’Rourke and Lynn M. Williams. 
(WPE10026) 

FY2017 International Affairs Budget: Issues for 

Congress, by Alex Tiersky, Marian L. Lawson and 
Susan B. Epstein. (WPE10000) 

FY2017 International Affairs Budget: Issues for 

Congress, by Susan B. Epstein, Alex Tiersky and 
Marian L. Lawson. (WPE2754) 

FY2017 International Affairs Budget: Issues for 

Congress, by Susan B. Epstein, Marian L. Lawson 
and Alex Tiersky. (WRE00136) 

FY2017 International Affairs Budget: Issues for 

Congress, by Susan B. Epstein, Marian L. Lawson 
and Alex Tiersky. (WVB00091) 

FY2017 State, Foreign Operations and Related Programs 
Budget Request: In Brief, by Marian L. Lawson, 
Alex Tiersky and Susan B. Epstein. 12 p. (R44391) 

Gabon’s August 27 Presidential Election, by 

Tomas F. Husted and Alexis Arieff. 3 p. (IN10558) 

The Global Climate Change Initiative (GCCI): Budget 
Authority and Request, FY2015 - FY2017, 
by Richard K. Lattanzio. 2 p. (IF10397) 

Global Food Security Act of 2016 (PL. 114-195), 
by Sonya Hammons. 2 p. (IF10475) 

Global Humanitarian and Displaced Persons Crises: 
Challenges and Opportunities, by Rhoda 
Margesson. (WRE00146) 

Global Humanitarian and Displaced Persons Crises: 
Challenges and Opportunities, by Rhoda 
Margesson. (WVB00102) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


84 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


Haiti: Elections Stalemate and U.S. Assistance, 
by Maureen Taft-Morales. 2 p. (IF10440) 

Heroin Production in Mexico and U.S. Policy, by Clare 
Ribando Seelke and Liana W. Rosen. 

2 p. (IN 10456) 

Heroin Production in Mexico and U.S. Policy, by 

Liana W. Rosen and Clare Ribando Seelke. 2 p. 
(IF10400) 

Hong Kong’s 2016 Legislative Council Elections, 
by Michael F. Martin. 3 p. (IN10564) 

Human Trafficking and Forced Labor: Trends in Import 
Restrictions, by Liana W. Rosen, Ashley Feng and 
M. Angeles Villarreal. 3 p. (IN10541) 

IAEA Budget and U.S. Contributions: In Brief, by Paul 
K. Kerr and Susan B. Epstein. 4 p. (R44384) 

The IMF’s Special Drawing Right and China’s Renminbi, 
by Martin A. Weiss. 2 p. (IF10327) 

Implications of a Changing Global Order, by 

Ronald O’Rourke and Michael L. Moodie. 
(WRE00139) 

Implications of a Changing Global Order, by 

Ronald O’Rourke and Michael L. Moodie. 
(WVB00095) 

Implications of Iranian Elections, by Kenneth Katzman. 

3 p. (IN 10457) 

India’s Domestic Political Setting, by K. Alan Kronstadt. 

2 p. (IF10298) 

India-U.S. Relations and the Visit of Prime Minister 
Modi, by Shayerah Ilias Akhtar and K. Alan 
Kronstadt. 3 p. (IN10500) 

Information Warfare: DOD’s Response to the Islamic 

State Hacking Activities, by Catherine A. Theohary, 
John W. Rollins and Kathleen J. Mclnnis. 3 p. 
(IN10486) 

Information Warfare: Russian Activities, by Kathleen 
J. Mclnnis and Catherine A. Theohary. 3 p. 
(IN10563) 


Instability in Africa’s Great Lakes Region: Current Issues, 
by Alexis Arieffi 2 p. (IF10413) 

International Climate Change Negotiations: What 
to Expect in Paris, December 2015, by Jane A. 
Leggett. 12 p. (R44288) 

International Law and The U.S. Legal System: Congress’s 
Role in Foreign Affairs, by Jennifer K. Elsea. 
(WVB00074) 

Iran Financial Sanctions Issues, by Liana W. Rosen and 
Kenneth Katzman. 3 p. (IN10547) 

Iran-U.S. Air Service Not Imminent, by Rachel Y. Tang. 

2 p. (IN10399) 

Iraq’s Political Future and U.S. Policy Choices, by 
Christopher M. Blanchard. 2 p. (IF10404) 

The Islamic State Frequently Asked Questions: Threats, 
Global Implications, and U.S. Policy Responses, 
by John W. Rollins and Heidi M. Peters. 13 p. 
(R44276) 

The Islamic State: In Focus, by Christopher M. 

Blanchard and Carla E. Humud. 2 p. (IF10328) 

The Islamic State Woos Jihadists in Africa but Faces 
Competition, by Lauren Ploch Blanchard. 3 p. 
(IN10477) 

The Islamist Militant Threat in Bangladesh, by Bruce 
Vaughn. 2 p. (IN10534) 

Israel and the Boycott, Divestment, and Sanctions (BDS) 
Movement, by Jim Zanotti, Kathleen Ann Ruane 
and Martin A. Weiss. 15 p. (R44281) 

Israel: Background and U.S. Relations In Brief, by Jim 
Zanotti. 13 p. (R44245) 

Japan’s Upper House Elections: Ruling Coalition 

Strengthens Majority, by Emma Chanlett-Avery 
and Ian E. Rinehart. 3 p. (IN10529) 

Justice for United States Victims of State Sponsored 

Terrorism Act: Eligibility and Funding, by Jennifer 
K. Elsea. 2 p. (IF10341) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


85 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


Kurds in Iraq and Syria: U.S. Partners Against the Islamic 
State, by Jim Zanotti, Rhoda Margesson, Carla E. 
Humud, Christopher M. Blanchard and Kenneth 
Katzman. 21 p. (R44513) 

The Kurds in Iraq, Turkey, Syria, and Iran, by Boiko J. 
Skorupski and Jim Zanotti. 2 p. (IF10350) 

Kyrgyz Republic, by Christopher T. Mann, Boiko J. 

Skorupski and Gabriel M. Nelson. 2 p. (IF10304) 

Latin America and the Caribbean: U.S. Policy Overview, 
by Mark P. Sullivan. 2 p. (IF10460) 

Leadership Succession in Uzbekistan, by Christopher T. 
Mann, Kenneth Katzman, Boiko J. Skorupski and 
Gabriel M. Nelson. 3 p. (IN10562) 

Lebanon, by Christopher M. Blanchard. 2 p. (IF10319) 

Legal Tools to Deter Travel by Suspected Terrorists: A 
Brief Primer, by Jared P. Cole and Michael John 
Garcia. 1 p. (WSLG1438) 

Less-than-Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement Signed in 
Burma, by Michael F. Martin. 3 p. (IN10374) 

Malaysia, by Ian E. Rinehart. 2 p. (IF10316) 

The March 2016 Nuclear Security Summit, by Mary 
Beth D. Nikitin. 2 p. (IN10463) 

The Microsoft Ireland Decision: U.S. Appeals Court 
Rules that ECPA Does Not Require Internet 
Service Providers To Produce Electronic 
Communications Stored Overseas, by Stephen P. 
Mulligan. 1 p. (WSLG1660) 

Morocco, by Gabriel M. Nelson and Carla E. Humud. 

2 p. (IF10357) 

Mosquitoes, Zika Virus, and Transmission Ecology, by 
Robert Esworthy, M. Lynne Corn and Tadlock 
Cowan. 2 p. (IF10353) 

NATO’s Warsaw Summit: In Brief, by Paul Belkin. 16 p. 
(R44550) 

Nepal: Political Developments and U.S. Relations, 
by Bruce Vaughn. 15 p. (R44303) 


A New Aid Package for Israel, by Jeremy M. Sharp. 3 p. 
(IN10545) 

New Climate Change Joint Announcement by China 
and the United States, by Jane A. Leggett. 2 p. 
(IF10296) 

New Zealand, by Ian F. Fergusson and Bruce Vaughn. 

2 p. (IF10389) 

New Zealand: Background and Bilateral Relations with 
the United States, by Bruce Vaughn. 7 p. (R44552) 

Nicaragua: In Brief, by Maureen Taft-Morales. lip. 
(R44560) 

North American Leaders’ Summit, by M. Angeles 
Villarreal. 3 p. (IN10508) 

Northeast Asia and Russia’s “Turn to the East”: 
Implications for U.S. Interests, by Emma 
Chanlett-Avery. 27 p. (R44613) 

North Korea: A Comparison of S. 1747, S. 2144, and 
H.R. 757, by Dianne E. Rennack. 55 p. (R44344) 

North Korea’s January 6,2016, Nuclear Test, by Mary 
Beth D. Nikitin. 2 p. (IN10428) 

North Korea’s Nuclear and Ballistic Missile Programs, by 
Mary Beth D. Nikitin and Steven A. Hildreth. 2 p. 
(IF10472) 

The November 2015 Terrorist Siege in Mali, by Lauren 
Ploch Blanchard, Alexis Arieff and Emily Renard. 

3 p. (IN10401) 

Oil Producing Countries Ministerial Meeting: Back¬ 
ground, Results, and Market Implications, by 
Robert Pirog and Phillip Brown. 5 p. (IN10479) 

Overseas Contingency Operations Funding: Background 
and Status, by Lynn M. Williams, Susan B. 
Epstein, Jim Zanotti, Christopher T. Mann, Anne 
Daugherty Miles, Heidi M. Peters, Christopher M. 
Blanchard, Daniel H. Else and Kenneth Katzman. 
56 p. (R44519) 

Pakistan’s Domestic Political Setting, by K. Alan 
Kronstadt. 2 p. (IF10359) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


86 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


Panama: Political and Economic Situation and U.S. 
Relations, by Mark P Sullivan. 2 p. (IF10430) 

Peacekeepers in the Sinai Peninsula and the Threat of 
Islamic State Terrorism, by Jeremy M. Sharp. 

2 p. (IN10412) 

Peru: Politics, Economy, and Elections in Brief, by 
Maureen Taft-Morales. 10 p. (R44445) 

Philippines 2016 Presidential Election, by Thomas Lum. 
2 p. (IF10387) 

Pope Francis in Cuba, by Mark P. Sullivan. 2 p. 
(IN10369) 

Possible U.S. Policy Approaches After North Korea’s 
January 2016 Nuclear Test, by Mark E. Manyin, 

Ian E. Rinehart and Emma Chanlett-Avery. 2 p. 
(IF10345) 

Possible U.S. Policy Approaches After North Korea’s 

September 2016 Nuclear Test, by Emma Chanlett- 
Avery, Jonathan R. Corrado and Mark E. Manyin. 
2 p. (IF10467) 

A Presidential Visit to Hiroshima?, by Emma Chanlett- 
Avery. 2 p. (IF10395) 

President Obama’s Historic Visit to Cuba, by Mark P. 
Sullivan. 2 p. (IN10466) 

President Obama’s June 2016 Meeting with Tibet’s Dalai 
Lama, by Susan V. Lawrence. 2 p. (IF10421) 

Proposed Boeing Aircraft Sale to Iran, by Kenneth 

Katzman, Dianne E. Rennack and Shayerah Ilias 
Akhtar. 3 p. (IN10515) 

The Proposed U.S. Foreign Assistance Initiative “Peace 
Colombia,” by June S. Beittel. 3 p. (IN10454) 

Prospects in Colombia: Cease-Fire, Peace Accord Vote, 
and Potential Disrupters, by June S. Beittel. 3 p. 
(IN10571) 

Puerto Rico: CRS Experts, by D. Andrew Austin. 5 p. 
(R44336) 


Qatar, by Christopher M. Blanchard. 2 p. (IF10351) 

Qatar: Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy, 
by Kenneth Katzman. 19 p. (R44533) 

Radical Transformation in the Middle East: Navigating 
the Crises, by Christopher M. Blanchard, Carla E. 
Humud and Kenneth Katzman. (WRE00152) 

Radical Transformation in the Middle East: Navigating 
the Crises, by Christopher M. Blanchard, Carla E. 
Humud and Kenneth Katzman. (WVB00111) 

Radical Transformation in the Middle East: Navigating 
the Crises, by Christopher M. Blanchard, Kenneth 
Katzman and Carla E. Humud. (WPE10282) 

Radical Transformation in the Middle East: Navigating 
the Crises, by Christopher M. Blanchard, Kenneth 
Katzman and Carla E. Humud. (WPE10283) 

Recent Developments in U.S. Policy Toward Burma, 
by Michael F. Martin. (WPE10367) 

Renewed Fighting in South Sudan: A Return to War?, 
by Lauren Ploch Blanchard. 2 p. (IN10526) 

Russia’s Parliamentary Elections, by Cory Welt. 3 p. 
(IN10573) 

Russia’s Syria/Ukraine Policies Take Hits: Putin Raises 
the Stakes, by Steven Woehrel and Vincent L. 
Morelli. 3 p. (IN10408) 

Rwanda: In Brief, by Emily Renard and Alexis Arieff. 10 
p. (R44402) 

Saudi Military Campaign in Yemen Draws Congressional 
Attention to U.S. Arms Sales, by Christopher M. 
Blanchard, Paul K. Kerr and Jeremy M. Sharp. 3 p. 
(IN10557) 

The Shutdown of the Joint North/South Korean Kaesong 
Industrial Complex, by Mark E. Manyin. 3 p. 
(IN10442) 

Spain and Its Relations with the United States: In Brief, 
by Derek E. Mix. 9 p. (R44298) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


87 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


Sri Lanka: Reform and Reconciliation, 
by Bruce Vaughn. 2 p. (IF10420) 

The State Department’s Final Decision on the Keystone 
XL Pipeline, by Linda Luther. 2 p. (IN10393) 

Status of the Ebola Outbreak in West Africa: Overview 
and Issues for Congress, by Tiaji Salaam-Blyther, 
Boiko J. Skorupski and Susan B. Epstein. 19 p. 
(R44507) 

Suspending Review of the Keystone XL Pipeline Permit?, 
by Paul W. Parfomak. 2 p. (IN10390) 

Syria and Russian Intervention: Office Hours, by 

Christopher M. Blanchard, Kenneth Katzman and 
Carla E. Humud. (WPE2686) 

Syria and Russia’s Military Intervention, by Christopher 
M. Blanchard, Derek E. Mix, Jeremiah 
Gertler, Steven Woehrel and Carla E. Humud. 
(WRE00116) 

Syria and Russia’s Military Intervention, by Steven 
Woehrel, Derek E. Mix, Carla E. Humud, 

Jeremiah Gertler and Christopher M. Blanchard. 
(WVB00069) 

Syrian Refugee Admissions and Resettlement in the 
United States: In Brief, by Andorra Bruno. 7 p. 
(R44277) 

Taiwan’s January 2016 Elections: A Preview, by Wayne 
M. Morrison and Susan V. Lawrence. 

3 p. (IN 10431) 

Taliban Leadership Succession, by Kenneth Katzman. 

2 p. (IN 10495) 

Tanzania: Current Issues and U.S. Policy, by Tomas F. 
Husted and Nicolas Cook. 16 p. (R44271) 

Terrorism and Violent Extremism in Africa, 

by Alexis Arieff and Lauren Ploch Blanchard. 

27 p. (R44563) 

Terrorism in Southeast Asia, by Ben Dolven, Bruce 
Vaughn, John W. Rollins, Thomas Lum, Ian 
E. Rinehart and Emma Chanlett-Avery. 27 p. 
(R44501) 


Timor-Leste: Background and U.S. Relations, 
by Ben Dolven. 2 p. (IF10320) 

TPP: Digital Trade Provisions, by Rachel F. Fefer. 

2 p. (IF10390) 

TPP: Taking the Measure of the Agreement for U.S. 

Agriculture, by Mark A. McMinimy. 2 p. (IF10412) 

Trade-Based Money Laundering: Overview and Policy 
Issues, by Rena S. Miller, James K. Jackson and 
Liana W. Rosen. 18 p. (R44541) 

Trafficking in Persons and U.S. Foreign Policy Responses 
in the 114th Congress, by Liana W. Rosen. 18 p. 
(R44581) 

The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP): First Take, by Brock 
R. Williams and Ian F. Fergusson. 3 p. (IN10371) 

The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP): Key Provisions and 
Issues for Congress, by Brock R. Williams, Ian F. 
Fergusson, Michaela D. Platzer, James K. Jackson, 
M. Angeles Villarreal, Bill Canis, Rebecca M. 
Nelson, Gabriel M. Nelson, Shayerah Ilias Akhtar, 
Ben Dolven and Vivian C. Jones. 86 p. (R44489) 

Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP): Questions & Answers, 
by Ian F. Fergusson, Brock R. Williams and Ben 
Dolven. (WPE2716) 

The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP)-Trade Promotion 
Authority (TPA) Timeline, by Ian F. Fergusson. 

2 p. (IF10297) 

Tunisia, by Carla E. Humud and Alexis Arieff. 2 p. 
(IF10358) 

Turkey: Failed Coup and Implications for U.S. Policy, 
by Jim Zanotti. 5 p. (IN10533) 

Turkmenistan, by Christopher T. Mann, Boiko J. 

Skorupski and Gabriel M. Nelson. 2 p. (IF10303) 

Uganda: An Overview, by Lauren Ploch Blanchard and 
Tomas F. Husted. 2 p. (IF10325) 

Understanding the ‘New’ Geopolitics of Asia, by Emma 
Chanlett-Avery, K. Alan Kronstadt and Susan V. 
Lawrence. (WPE10382) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


88 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


Understanding the ‘New’ Geopolitics of Asia, 

by K. Alan Kronstadt and Susan V. Lawrence. 
(WPE10383) 

The United Kingdom and the European Union: 

Stay or Go?, by Derek E. Mix. 3 p. (IN10449) 

United Kingdom Votes to Leave the European Union, 
by Derek E. Mix. 3 p. (IN10513) 

United Nations Issues: Appointing the U.N. Secretary- 
General, by Luisa Blanchfield. 2 p. (IF10454) 

United Nations Issues: Congressional Representatives to 
the U.N. General Assembly, by Luisa Blanchfield 
and Matthew C. Weed. 2 p. (IF10464) 

United Nations Issues: Sexual Abuse and Exploitation 
by U.N. Peacekeepers, by Luisa Blanchfield and 
Matthew C. Weed. 2 p. (IF10419) 

U.S. Agent Orange/Dioxin Assistance to Vietnam, 
by Michael F. Martin. 20 p. (R44268) 

A U.S.-China Bilateral Investment Treaty (BIT): Issues 
and Implications, by Wayne M. Morrison. 2 p. 
(IF10307) 

U.S.-China Cyber Agreement, by John W. Rollins, 
Catherine A. Theohary, Susan V. Lawrence and 
Dianne E. Rennack. 3 p. (IN10376) 

U.S. Foreign Assistance to the Middle East: Historical 
Background, Recent Trends, and the FY2016 
Request, by Carla E. Humud and Jeremy M. Sharp. 
23 p. (R44233) 

U.S. Foreign Assistance: USAID Loan Guarantees, 
by Curt Tarnoff. 2 p. (IF10409) 

U.S. Funding of the United Nations System, 
by Luisa Blanchfield. 2 p. (IF10354) 

U.S.-Nordic Relations, by Kristin Archick. 3 p. 

(IN10487) 

U.S. Nuclear Weapons in Turkey, by Amy F. Woolf. 2 p. 
(IN10542) 


U.S. Relations with Burma: Key Issues for FY2016, 
by Michael F. Martin. 2 p. (IF10352) 

U.S. Restrictions on Relations with Burma, 
by Michael F. Martin. 22 p. (R44570) 

U.S. Strategy for Engagement in Central America: 

Background and FY2017 Budget Request, by Peter 
J. Meyer and Clare Ribando Seelke. 2 p. (IF10371) 

Uzbekistan, by Christopher T. Mann, Boiko J. Skorupski 
and Gabriel M. Nelson. 2 p. (IF10302) 

Venezuela’s December 2015 Legislative Elections, 
by Mark P. Sullivan. 3 p. (IN10404) 

What Is the Regional Comprehensive Economic 

Partnership?, by Michael F. Martin, Ben Dolven, 
Brock R. Williams, Wayne M. Morrison, Bruce 
Vaughn and Ian F. Fergusson. 2 p. (IF10342) 

Wildlife Poaching in Africa: An Overview, by Liana 
W. Rosen, Pervaze A. Sheikh, Tomas F. Husted, 
Lauren Ploch Blanchard and Alexis Arieff. 2 p. 
(IF10330) 

Will the United States Remove its Restrictions on Lethal 
Arms Sales to Vietnam?, by Paul K. Kerr and Mark 
E.Manyin.3 p. (IN10489) 

The World Drug Problem: UNGA Convenes for a 

Special Session, by Liana W. Rosen. 3 p. (IN10482) 

The WTO Nairobi Ministerial, by Rachel F. Fefer. 

2 p. (IN10422) 

Zika Response Funding: In Brief, by Susan B. Epstein 
and Sarah A. Lister, lip. (R44460) 

Zika Virus: Global Health Considerations, by Tiaji 
Salaam-Blyther. 3 p. (IN10433) 

Zika Virus in Latin America and the Caribbean: 

U.S. Policy Considerations, by Clare Ribando 
Seelke, June S. Beittel and Tiaji Salaam-Blyther. 

25 p. (R44545) 

Zimbabwe: Current Issues and U.S. Policy, by Nicolas 
Cook. 32 p. (R44633) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


89 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


HEALTH 


Active Opioid Legislation in the House: In Brief, 

by Lisa N. Sacco and Erin Bagalman. 5 p. (R44493) 

Advancing Care Information (ACI): Changes Mandated 
by the Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive 
Program, by C. Stephen Redhead. (WPE10247) 

Advancing Care Information: Proposed Changes to 
the Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive 
Program Under MACRA, by C. Stephen Redhead. 
(WRE00145) 

Advancing Care Information: Proposed Changes to 
the Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive 
Program Under MACRA, by C. Stephen Redhead. 
(WVB00101) 

Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2016 
Appropriations, by Jim Monke, Mark A. 
McMinimy, Randy Schnepf, Susan Thaul, Agata 
Dabrowska, Renee Johnson, Megan Stubbs, Randy 
Alison Aussenberg, Joel L. Greene, Tadlock Cowan 
and Rena S. Miller. 76 p. (R44240) 

Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2017 

Appropriations, by Jim Monke, Megan Stubbs, 
Tadlock Cowan, Rena S. Miller, Mark A. 
McMinimy, Joel L. Greene, Randy Schnepf, Renee 
Johnson, Agata Dabrowska and Randy Alison 
Aussenberg. 1 p. (R44588) 

The Aliso Canyon Natural Gas Leak: Public Health and 
Environmental Impacts, by Richard K. Lattanzio. 4 
p. (IN10448) 

Behavioral Health Among American Indian and Alaska 
Natives: An Overview, by Anastasia K. Tucker, 
Elayne J. Heisler and Erin Bagalman. 19 p. 
(R44634) 

Biologies and Biosimilars: Background and Key Issues, by 
Judith A. Johnson. 25 p. (R44620) 

Caregiver Support to Veterans, by Kirsten J. Colello. 2 p. 
(IF10396) 


Child Nutrition Reauthorization in 2016: Background 
and Legislative Activity, by Randy Alison 
Aussenberg. (WPE10023) 

Child Nutrition Reauthorization in 2016: Background 
and Legislative Activity, by Randy Alison 
Aussenberg. (WPE10024) 

Child Nutrition Reauthorization in 2016: Background 
and Legislative Activity, by Randy Alison 
Aussenberg. (WPE2749) 

Child Nutrition Reauthorization in 2016: Background 
and Legislative Activity (hosted in the CRS Senate 
Center), by Randy Alison Aussenberg. (WPE2750) 

Chronic Homelessness: Background, Research, and 

Outcomes, by Erin Bagalman and Libby Perl. 63 p. 
(R44302) 

The Comprehensive Care Joint Replacement 

Demonstration, by Scott R.Talaga. 2 p. (IF10310) 

Congressionally Directed Medical Research Program 
Funding for FY2015 and FY2016, by Don J. 

Jansen. 2 p. (IF10349) 

Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan (CO-OP) 

Program: Frequently Asked Questions, by Grant A. 
Driessen and Annie L. Mach. 13 p. (R44414) 

Developments in the Law of Abortion and Reproductive 
Health, by Jon O. Shimabukuro. (WRE00120) 

Developments in the Law of Abortion and Reproductive 
Health, by Jon O. Shimabukuro. (WVB00073) 

Dietary Guidelines for Americans: Frequently Asked 
Questions, by Agata Dabrowska. 17 p. (R44360) 

Digital Health Information and the Threat of 
Cyberattack, by C. Stephen Redhead. 2 p. 
(IF10473) 

Do Veterans Have Choices in How They Access Health 
Care?, by Sidath Viranga Panangala. 

2 p. (IF10418) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


90 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


Ebola in West Africa: Issues with Elimination, 
byTiaji Salaam-Blyther. 2 p. (IF10300) 

Efforts to Address the Safety of FDA-Regulated Food 
Imports, by Renee Johnson. 2 p. (IF10403) 

Electronic Health Records: Will the New Meaningful 
Use Rules Promote Health Information Exchange 
and Improve Care?, by C. Stephen Redhead. 
(WRE00128) 

Electronic Health Records: Will the New Meaningful 
Use Rules Promote Health Information Exchange 
and Improve Care?, by C. Stephen Redhead. 
(WVB00083) 

Eligibility and Determination of Health Insurance 

Premium Tax Credits and Cost-Sharing Subsidies: 
In Brief, by Bernadette Fernandez, lip. (R44425) 

Employer Wellness Programs and Genetic Information: 
Frequently Asked Questions, by Amanda K. Sarata. 
5 p. (R44311) 

Examining Medicaid and CHIP’s Federal Medical 
Assistance Percentage, by Alison Mitchell. 2 p. 
(TE10006) 

Factors Related to the Use of Planned Parenthood 

Affiliated Health Centers (PPAHCs) and Federally 
Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs), by Elayne J. 
Heisler. 23 p. (R44295) 

The FDA Medical Device User Fee Program: MDUFA 
IV Reauthorization, by Judith A. Johnson. 19 p. 
(R44517) 

FDA’s Proposed Medical Device Surveillance System and 
the Role of Unique Device Identification (UDI), 
by Judith A. Johnson. 3 p. (IN10488) 

FDA’s Regulation: What’s Next for E-Cigarettes, Cigars, 
and Other Tobacco Products?, by C. Stephen 
Redhead. (WPE10246) 

FDA’s Regulation: What’s Next for E-Cigarettes, Cigars, 
and Other Tobacco Products?, by C. Stephen 
Redhead. (WRE00147) 


FDA’s Regulation: What’s Next for E-Cigarettes, Cigars, 
and Other Tobacco Products?, by C. Stephen 
Redhead. (WVB00103) 

The Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) 

Program: Open Season for the 2016 Plan Year, 
by Ada S. Cornell and Kirstin B. Blom. 2 p. 
(IF10324) 

Federal Support for Graduate Medical Education: 

An Overview, by Elayne J. Heisler, Scott R. Talaga, 
Sidath Viranga Panangala, Don J. Jansen and 
Alison Mitchell. 24 p. (R44376) 

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Budget: Fact 
Sheet, by Susan Thaul and Agata Dabrowska. 6 p. 
(R44576) 

FY2017 Agriculture and Related Agencies 

Appropriations: In Brief, by Jim Monke. 12 p. 
(R44441) 

Global Humanitarian and Displaced Persons Crises: 
Challenges and Opportunities, by Rhoda 
Margesson. (WVB00102) 

Health Care Reform and the Supreme Court, 

by Kathleen S. Swendiman and Jennifer Staman. 
(WRE00047) 

The Health Coverage Tax Credit (HCTC): In Brief, 
by Bernadette Fernandez. 8 p. (R44392) 

Health Insurance Expiring Provisions of the 114th 

Congress, Second Session, by Scott R. Talaga, Cliff 
Binder, Kirsten J. Colello, C. Stephen Redhead, 
Alison Mitchell, Jim Hahn and Annie L. Mach. 

13 p. (R44317) 

Health Privacy: Updating Federal Protections for Patient 
Records at Substance Abuse Treatment Programs, 
by C. Stephen Redhead. 2 p. (IF10374) 

Health-Related Tax Expenditures: Overview and 
Analysis, by Sean Lowry. 15 p. (R44333) 

Heroin Trafficking in the United States, 
by Kristin Finklea. 16 p. (R44599) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


91 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


House of Representatives Successfully Challenges 
Payment of ACA Cost-sharing Subsidies to 
Insurers, but Court Stays Injunction Pending 
Appeal, by Jennifer A. Staman and Edward C. Liu. 
1 p. (WSLG1577) 

Improving Child Nutrition Integrity and Access Act of 
2016: In Brief, by Randy Alison Aussenberg. 9 p. 
(R44373) 

The Independent Payment Advisory Board (IPAB): 

Implications of a Positive Trigger Determination in 
2017, by Christopher M. Davis and Jim Hahn. 2 p. 
(IF10425) 

The Individual Mandate for Health Insurance Coverage: 
In Brief, by Annie L. Mach. 6 p. (R44438) 

Lead in Flint, Michigan’s Drinking Water: CRS Experts, 
by Jerry H. Yen. 3 p. (R44448) 

Lead in Flint, Michigan’s Drinking Water: Federal 

Regulatory Role, by Mary Tiemann. 3 p. (IN10446) 

Legal Issues Associated with FDA Standards of Identity: 
In Brief, by Emily M. Lanza. 8 p. (R44393) 

Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital (DSH) 
Reductions, by Alison Mitchell. 2 p. (IF10422) 

Medicaid Primer, by Alison Mitchell. 2 p. (IF10322) 

Medicare’s Skilled Nursing Facility (SNF) Three-Day 
Inpatient Stay Requirement: In Brief, by Scott R. 
Talaga. 7 p. (R44512) 

Mental Health Reform, by Erin Bagalman. (WPE10266) 

Mental Health Reform, by Erin Bagalman. (WRE00149) 

Mental Health Reform, by Erin Bagalman. (WVB00106) 

Mosquito Control in the United States, by Grant D. 

Clinkingbeard and Sarah A. Lister. 2 p. (IF10439) 

Mosquitoes, Zika Virus, and Transmission Ecology, 

by Robert Esworthy, M. Lynne Corn and Tadlock 
Cowan. 2 p. (IF10353) 


Nutrition Labeling of Restaurant Menu and Vending 
Machine Items, by Agata Dabrowska. 20 p. 
(R44272) 

Older Americans Act: 2016 Reauthorization, 
by Kirsten J. Colello. 22 p. (R44485) 

OPM Announces Premium Increase in the Federal 
Long-Term Care Insurance Program, 
by Kirsten J. Colello. 3 p. (IN10560) 

Orlando Shooting Revives Debate over Restricting Blood 
Donations by Gay Men, by C. Stephen Redhead. 

3 p. (IN10535) 

Overview of Long-Term Services and Supports, 
by Kirsten J. Colello. 2 p. (IF10427) 

Overview of the ACA Medicaid Expansion, 
by Alison Mitchell. 2 p. (IF10399) 

Patents and Prescription Drug Importation, 
by John R. Thomas. 13 p. (R44511) 

Patient Access to Health Information in the Digital Age, 
by C. Stephen Redhead. 2 p. (IF10461) 

Pharmaceutical Patent-Antitrust: Reverse Payment 
Settlements and Product Hopping, by John R. 
Thomas. 16 p. (R44222) 

Policy Issues Involving Food Loss and Waste, 
by Renee Johnson. 2 p. (IF10317) 

Potential Impact of No Social Security COLA on 

Medicare Part B Premiums in 2016, by Patricia A. 
Davis. 22 p. (R44224) 

Potential Policy Implications of the House Reconciliation 
Bill (H.R. 3762), by Annie L. Mach, Julie M. 
Whittaker, James V. Saturno, C. Stephen Redhead, 
Sean Lowry, Sarah A. Lister, Elayne J. Heisler and 
Jim Hahn. 12 p. (R44238) 

Prescription Drug Discount Coupons: Implications for 
Public and Commercial Health Care Plans, 
by Suzanne M. Kirchhoff. 22 p. (R44264) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


92 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


President’s FY2017 Budget for the Centers for Medicare 
& Medicaid Services (CMS): CRS Experts, 
by Alison Mitchell. 11 p. (R44382) 

Provisions of the Senate Amendment to H.R. 3762, 
by Annie L. Mach, Evelyne P Baumrucker, 

Patricia A. Davis, Bernadette Fernandez, Elayne 
J. Heisler, Julie M. Whittaker, Sarah A. Lister, 
Erika K. Lunder, Alison Mitchell, Paulette C. 
Morgan, James V. Saturno, Namrata K. Uberoi, 
Erin Bagalman and Suzanne M. Kirchhoff 24 p. 
(R44300) 

Public Health Service Agencies: Overview and Funding 
(FY2015-FY2017), by Agata Dabrowska, C. 
Stephen Redhead, Elayne J. Heisler, Judith A. 
Johnson, Sarah A. Lister, Amanda K. Sarata and 
Erin Bagalman. 38 p. (R44505) 

Puerto Rico and Health Care Finance: Frequently Asked 
Questions, by Annie L. Mach, Scott R. Talaga, 
Paulette C. Morgan, Alison Mitchell, Suzanne 
M. Kirchhoff, Jim Hahn, Sarah A. Donovan and 
Patricia A. Davis. 33 p. (R44275) 

Regulation of Over-the-Counter (OTC) Drugs, 
by Agata Dabrowska. 2 p. (IF10463) 

The Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program: Overview and 
Impact of the Affordable Care Act, by Elayne J. 
Heisler and Judith A. Johnson. 24 p. (R44282) 

Senate Medical Innovation Bills: Overview and 

Comparison with the 21st Century Cures Act 
(H.R. 6), by C. Stephen Redhead, Amanda K. 
Sarata, Sarah A. Lister, Elayne J. Heisler, Agata 
Dabrowska, Judith A. Johnson and Frank Gottron. 
63 p. (R44502) 

Stafford Act Assistance for Public Health Incidents, 

by Francis X. McCarthy and Bruce R. Lindsay. 3 p. 
(IN10551) 

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services 

Administration (SAMHSA): Agency Overview, 
by Erin Bagalman. 17 p. (R44510) 


Supplemental Appropriations for Zika Response: The 
FY2016 Conference Agreement in Brief, by Sarah 
A. Lister and Susan B. Epstein, lip. (R44549) 

Telehealth and Telemedicine: Description and Issues, 
by Bernice Reyes-Akinbileje. 29 p. (R44437) 

Updating the Common Rule in an Era of Big Health 
Data, by C. Stephen Redhead. 2 p. (IF10380) 

The Veterans Choice Program (VCP): Program 

Implementation, by Victoria Elliott and Sidath 
Viranga Panangala. 18 p. (R44562) 

Veterans’Medical Care: FY2016 Appropriations, 
by Sidath Viranga Panangala. 35 p. (R44301) 

Who Pays for Long-Term Services and Supports?, 
by Kirsten J. Colello. 2 p. (IF10343) 

Will the New Meaningful Use Rules for Electronic 
Health Records Promote Health Information 
Exchange and Improve Care?, by C. Stephen 
Redhead. (WPE2705) 

The Zika Outbreak Is Declared a Public Health 

Emergency in Puerto Rico, by Sarah A. Lister. 

3 p. (IN10555) 

Zika Poses New Challenges for Blood Centers, by Sarah 
A. Lister and C. Stephen Redhead. 3 p. (IN10544) 

Zika Response Funding: In Brief, by Susan B. Epstein 
and Sarah A. Lister, lip. (R44460) 

Zika Virus: Basics About the Disease, by Sarah A. Lister. 

4 p. (R44368) 

Zika Virus: CRS Experts, by Sarah A. Lister. 3 p. 
(R44385) 

Zika Virus: Global Health Considerations, 
byTiaji Salaam-Blyther. 3 p. (IN10433) 

Zika Virus in Latin America and the Caribbean: 

U.S. Policy Considerations, by Clare Ribando 
Seelke,June S. Beittel andTiaji Salaam-Blyther. 

25 p. (R44545) 

Zika Virus in the Western Hemisphere: CRS Products, 
by Sarah A. Lister. 2 p. (R44595) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


93 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


HOMELAND SECURITY AND TERRORISM 


Access to Digital Data: The Legal Debate over 
Government Surveillance and Encryption, 
by Richard M. Thompson II. (WVB00096) 

The Advocacy of Terrorism on the Internet: Freedom of 
Speech Issues and the Material Support Statutes, 
by Kathleen Ann Ruane. 24 p. (R44626) 

Blackout! Are We Prepared to Manage the Aftermath of 
a Cyber-Attack or Other Failure of the Electrical 
Grid?, by Richard J. Campbell. 7 p. (TE10008) 

Border Security Metrics Between Ports of Entry, 
by Carla N. Argueta. 19 p. (R44386) 

The Coast Guard’s Role in Safeguarding Maritime 

Transportation: Selected Issues, by John Frittelli. 

15 p. (R44566) 

Comparing DHS Component Funding, FY2017: 

Fact Sheet, by William L. Painter. 6 p. (R44611) 

Cybersecurity: Critical Infrastructure Authoritative 
Reports and Resources, by RitaTehan.27 p. 
(R44410) 

Cybersecurity: Cybercrime and National Security 
Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Rita 
Tehan. 37 p. (R44408) 

Cybersecurity: Education, Training, and R&JD 

Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Rita 
Tehan. 14 p. (R44406) 

Cybersecurity: Federal Government Authoritative 
Reports and Resources, by Rita Tehan. 1 p. 
(R44427) 

Cybersecurity: Overview Reports and Links to 
Government, News, and Related Resources, 
by Rita Tehan. 15 p. (R44405) 

Cybersecurity: State, Local, and International 
Authoritative Reports and Resources, 
by Rita Tehan. 26 p. (R44417) 

Cyber-Threat Actors: Overview and Considerations, 
by Kristin Finklea, Catherine A. Theohary and 
John W. Rollins. (WPE2713) 


Data Security and Breach Notification Legislation: 
Selected Legal Issues, by Alissa M. Dolan. 

21 p. (R44326) 

Deconstructing the Justice Against Sponsors of Terrorism 
Act, by Stephen P. Mulligan. 1 p. (WSLG1672) 

Department of Homeland Security Appropriations: 
FY2017, by William L. Painter and Barbara L. 
Schwemle. 32 p. (R44621) 

DHS Appropriations FY2016: Security, Enforcement 
and Investigations, by William L. Painter, John 
Frittelli, Bart Elias, Lisa Seghetti and Alison Siskin. 
32 p. (R44215) 

Digital Health Information and the Threat of Cyber¬ 
attack, by C. Stephen Redhead. 2 p. (IF10473) 

The Director of National Intelligence (DNI), 
by Anne Daugherty Miles. 2 p. (IF10470) 

EB-5 Immigrant Investor Visa, by Carla N. Argueta, 
and Alison Siskin. 28 p. (R44475) 

Encryption and the “Going Dark” Debate, 
by Kristin Finklea. 17 p. (R44481) 

Federal Assistance for Victims of Terrorism or Mass 

Violence: In Brief, by Lisa N. Sacco. 10 p. (R44579) 

Federal Court Weighs in on “VisaGate 2015”: 

Part 1, the Visa Bulletin and Recent Revisions to It, 
by Kate M. Manuel. 1 p. (WSLG1431) 

Federal Court Weighs in on “VisaGate 2015”: 

Part 2, the Court’s Decision and Unresolved Issues, 
by Kate M. Manuel. 1 p. (WSLG1432) 

The Federal Cybersecurity Workforce: Background and 

Congressional Oversight Issues for the Departments 
of Defense and Homeland Security, by Kathryn A. 
Francis and Wendy Ginsberg. 26 p. (R44364) 

The Federal Cybersecurity Workforce: Background and 

Congressional Oversight Issues for the Departments 
of Defense and Homeland Security, by Wendy 
Ginsberg and Kathryn A. Francis. 26 p. (R44338) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


94 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


Financial Services and Cybersecurity: The Federal Role, 
by M. Maureen Murphy and N. Eric Weiss. 29 p. 
(R44429) 

FLU Preview: Access to Digital Data: The Legal Debate 
over Government Surveillance and Encryption, 
by Richard M. Thompson II. 1 p. (WSLG1540) 

FLU Preview: Deterring Terrorism, Cyber Attacks, 

and Other Threats in the Digital Age, by Richard 
M. Thompson II and Kathleen Ann Ruane. 1 p. 
(WSLG1661) 

FLU Preview: National Security Law Update: FISA 

Reform and Wartime Detainee Policy, by Edward 
C. Liu and Jennifer K. Elsea. 1 p. (WSLG1548) 

The ‘Going Dark’ Debate: Encryption and Evolving 
Technology, by Kristin Finklea. (WPE10292) 

The ‘Going Dark’ Debate: Encryption and Evolving 
Technology, by Kristin Finklea. (WRE00148) 

The H-2B Visa and the Statutory Cap: In Brief, 
by Andorra Bruno. 7 p. (R44306) 

Homeland Security Investigations, a Directorate within 
U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement: In 
Brief, by Jerome P. Bjelopera. 13 p. (R44269) 

Immigration Legislation and Issues in the 114th 
Congress, by Andorra Bruno, Alison Siskin, 
William A. Kandel, Jerome P. Bjelopera and 
Michael John Garcia. 24 p. (R44230) 

Information Warfare: DOD’s Response to the Islamic 

State Hacking Activities, by Catherine A. Theohary, 
John W. Rollins and Kathleen J. Mclnnis. 3 p. 
(IN10486) 

Intelligence Planning, Programming, Budgeting 8c 

Evaluation Process (IPPBE),by Anne Daugherty 
Miles. 2 p. (IF10428) 

Intelligence Spending: In Brief, by Anne Daugherty 
Miles. 15 p. (R44381) 

Interior Immigration Enforcement: Criminal Alien 
Programs, by William A. Kandel. 24 p. (R44627) 


The Islamic State’s Acolytes and the Challenges They 
Pose to U.S. Law Enforcement, by Jerome P. 
Bjelopera. 15 p. (R44521) 

The K-l Fiance(e) Visa: In Brief, by Ruth Ellen Wasem 
and Carla N. Argueta. 8 p. (R44310) 

Legal Tools to Deter Travel by Suspected Terrorists: 

A Brief Primer, by Jared P. Cole and Michael John 
Garcia. 1 p. (WSLG1438) 

Mass Shootings and Terrorism: CRS Products, 
by Jennifer E. Lake. 1 p. (R44520) 

Minding the Data Gap: NOAA’s Polar-Orbiting 
Weather Satellites and Strategies for Data 
Continuity, by Peter Folger. 10 p. (R44335) 

The Orlando Mass Shooting: CRS Experts, 
by Lisa Seghetti. 3 p. (R44537) 

Orlando Nightclub Mass Shooting: Gun Checks and 
Terrorist Watchlists, by William J. Krouse. 2 p. 
(IN10509) 

Paris Attacks and “Going Dark”: Intelligence-Related 
Issues to Consider, by Anne Daugherty Miles. 3 p. 
(IN10400) 

Peacekeepers in the Sinai Peninsula and the Threat of 
Islamic State Terrorism, by Jeremy M. Sharp. 2 p. 

(IN10412) 

Perspectives on Federal Cybersecurity Spending: 

In Brief, by Chris Jaikaran and William L. Painter. 
11 p. (R44404) 

Renewed Crypto Wars?, by Kristin Finklea. 3 p. 
(IN10440) 

A Resurgence of Unaccompanied Alien Children?, by 
William A. Kandel. 2 p. (IN10493) 

“Right-Sizing” the National Security Council Staff?, 
by Kathleen J. Mclnnis. 3 p. (IN10521) 

Senate Passes Cybersecurity Information Sharing 
Bill-What’s Next?, by Andrew Nolan. 1 p. 
(WSLG1429) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


95 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


Stafford Act Assistance and Acts of Terrorism, 

by Bruce R. Lindsay and Francis X. McCarthy. 

3 p. (IN 10507) 

STEM-OPT Extension for F-l Visas Survives 

Challenge in Federal Court despite Procedural 
Rulemaking Error, by Sarah S. Herman. 1 p. 
(WSLG1425) 

Syrian Refugee Admissions and Resettlement in the 
United States: In Brief, by Andorra Bruno. 7 p. 
(R44277) 

The Terrorist Screening Database: Background 

Information, by Jerome P. Bjelopera. 10 p. (R44529) 

Trends in the Timing and Size of DHS Appropriations: 
In Brief, by William L. Painter. 8 p. (R44604) 


U.S.-China Cyber Agreement, by John W. Rollins, 
Catherine A. Theohary, Susan V. Lawrence and 
Dianne E. Rennack. 3 p. (IN10376) 

The U.S. Intelligence Community (IC), by Anne 
Daugherty Miles. 2 p. (IF10469) 

The U.S. Intelligence Community: Selected Cross- 
Cutting Issues, by Anne Daugherty Miles. 35 p. 
(R44455) 

The U.S. Role in Aviation Security Abroad, 
by Bart Elias. (WVB00107) 

Waiting in Queue: Options for Addressing the Airport 
Screening Line Conundrum, by Bart Elias. 3 p. 
(IN10490) 

The Yahoo! Data Breach—Issues for Congress, 
by N. Eric Weiss. 2 p. (IN10586) 


HOUSING 


An Analysis of Portfolio Lending and Qualified 

Mortgages, by Sean M. Hoskins. 27 p. (R44350) 

A Brief Overview of H.R. 1210, the Portfolio Lending 
and Mortgage Access Act, by Sean M. Hoskins. 

2 p. (IF10321) 

Chronic Homelessness: Background, Research, and 
Outcomes, by Erin Bagalman and Libby Perl. 

63 p. (R44302) 

Department of Housing and Urban Development 
(HUD): FY2017 Appropriations, by Maggie 
McCarty, Eugene Boyd, Katie Jones and Libby 
Perl. 14 p. (R44495) 

Department of Housing and Urban Development 
(HUD): FY2017 Budget Request Overview 
and Resources, by Maggie McCarty. 5 p. (R44380) 

The Fair Housing Act: HUD Oversight, Programs, and 
Activities, by Libby Perl. 24 p. (R44557) 

Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac in Conservatorship: 
Frequently Asked Questions, by N. Eric Weiss. 

20 p. (R44525) 


FEMA Disaster Housing: The Individuals and 

Households Program—Implementation and 
Potential Issues for Congress, by Francis X. 
McCarthy. 18 p. (R44619) 

FHFA’s Administrative Reform of Fannie Mae, 

Freddie Mac, and the Housing Finance System, 
by Sean M. Hoskins. 24 p. (R44506) 

Housing Issues in the 114th Congress, by Katie Jones, 
David H. Carpenter, N. Eric Weiss, Libby Perl, 
Maggie McCarty, Mark P. Keightley and Sean M. 
Hoskins. 35 p. (R44304) 

Housing Opportunity Through Modernization Act of 
2015 (H.R. 3700): In Brief, by Maggie McCarty, 
Katie Jones and Libby Perl. 12 p. (R44358) 

How Many People Experience Homelessness?, 
by Libby Perl. 2 p. (IF10312) 

Integrated Mortgage Disclosure Forms and H.R. 3192 
and S. 1484/S. 1910: In Brief, by Sean M. Hoskins. 
4 p. (R44217) 

Introduction to Financial Regulation: Real Estate 

Appraisals, by Edward V. Murphy. 2 p. (IF10423) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


96 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


The Native American Housing Assistance and Self- 
Determination Act (NAHASDA): Issues and 
Reauthorization Legislation in the 114th Congress, 
by Katie Jones. 30 p. (R44261) 

Reforming Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac: Current 
Legislative Proposals, by N. Eric Weiss. 2 p. 
(IN10394) 


Runaway and Homeless Youth: Recent Federal Support 
and FY2016 Appropriations, by Adrienne L. 
Fernandes-Alcantara. 2 p. (IF10402) 

Wells Fargo and U.S. Reach Tentative 11.2 Billion 
Agreement Over Faulty FHA Mortgages, 
by David H. Carpenter. 1 p. (WSLG1496) 

Why Are Over-Income Tenants Living in Public 

Housing?, by Maggie McCarty. 2 p. (IN10381) 


LAW AND JUSTICE 


1st Circuit Green Lights Suit against Mobile App for 

Violating Video Privacy Law, by Gina Stevens. 1 p. 
(WSLG1594) 

The 2015 Supreme Court Term and Its Importance for 
Congress, by Andrew Nolan and Kate M. Manuel. 
(WVB00104) 

Access to Digital Data: The Legal Debate over 

Government Surveillance and Encryption, by 
Richard M. Thompson II. (WRE00140) 

The Advocacy of Terrorism on the Internet: Freedom of 
Speech Issues and the Material Support Statutes, 
by Kathleen Ann Ruane. 24 p. (R44626) 

After House v. Burwell, Could Insurers Sue the Federal 
Government for Losses?, by Edward C. Liu and 
Jennifer A. Staman. 1 p. (WSLG1584) 

Announcing the Fall 2016 Federal Law Update, 
by Carrie N. Lyons. 1 p. (WSLG1655) 

Another Foreign Bank Claims FinCEN’s “Death 
Sentence” Requires Better Procedures, by 
M. Maureen Murphy. 1 p. (WSLG1422) 

An Apparent First in U.S. Law Enforcement Use of 
Unmanned Ground Vehicles, by Nathan James. 

3 p. (IN10537) 

Appellate Court Invalidates North Carolina Election 
Law, Including Voter Photo ID Requirement, 
by L. Paige Whitaker. 1 p. (WSLG1639) 


Appointment of African American U.S. Circuit and 
District Court Judges: Historical Overview 
and Current Data, by Barry J. McMillion. 4 p. 
(IN10444) 

Are Daily Fantasy Sports Customer Funds Legally 
Protected?, by David H. Carpenter. 1 p. 
(WSLG1505) 

Backlog of Sexual Assault Evidence: In Brief, 

by Nathan James and Lisa N. Sacco. 8 p. (R44237) 

Birthright Citizenship and Children Born in the United 
States to Alien Parents: An Overview of the Legal 
Debate, by Alexandra M. Wyatt. 22 p. (R44251) 

Bomb-Making Online: An Abridged Sketch of Federal 
Criminal Law, by Charles Doyle. (RS21616) 

Can Agencies Take Actions That They Are Not Expressly 
Authorized by Statute to Take?, by Kate M. 
Manuel. 1 p. (WSLG1523) 

Can “Special Circumstances”Trump the Prison 

Litigation Reform Act’s Requirement to Exhaust 
Administrative Remedies?, by Sarah S. Herman. 

1 p. (WSLG1533) 

Can States and Localities Bar the Resettlement of 
Syrian Refugees Within Their Jurisdictions?, 
by Kate M. Manuel and Michael John Garcia. 

1 p. (WSLG1440) 

CFPB Issues Proposal to Regulate Payday, Car Title, and 
Other Small-Dollar Loans, by David H. Carpenter. 
1 p. (WSLG1613) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


97 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


CFPB Issues Proposed Rule that Would Restrict 
Mandatory Pre-Dispute Arbitration Clauses, 
by David H. Carpenter. 1 p. (WSLG1574) 

Chamber of Commerce and Others Challenge New 
Fiduciary Rule, by Jon O. Shimabukuro and 
Jennifer A. Staman. 1 p. (WSLG1614) 

Circuit Court Denies Stay of Clean Power Plan; States 
Ask Supreme Court to Step In (Part 1), 
by Alexandra M. Wyatt. 1 p. (WSLG1485) 

Circuit Court Denies Stay of Clean Power Plan; States 
Ask Supreme Court to Step In (Part 2), 
by Alexandra M. Wyatt. 1 p. (WSLG1489) 

Circuits Split on Congress’s Foreign Commerce Clause 
Power, by Charles Doyle. 1 p. (WSLG1481) 

Circuits Split Over When Illegal Parole Conditions 
May Be Challenged, by Charles Doyle. 1 p. 
(WSLG1499, 

Clean Power Plan: Legal Background and Pending 

Litigation in West Virginia v. EPA, by Alexandra M. 
Wyatt. 31 p. (R44480) 

Computer Fraud Conviction Survives Delay and 

Erroneous Jury Instructions, by Charles Doyle. 

1 p. (WSLG1514) 

Congress May Tilt the Scales without Upsetting 

Separation of Powers Vis-a-vis Courts (Especially 
Where Foreign Affairs Are Concerned), 
byjennifer K. Elsea. 1 p. (WSLG1566) 

Constitutional Limits to Agency Independence, 
by Jared P. Cole. 1 p. (WSLG1581) 

Corporate Inversions: Frequently Asked Legal Questions, 
by Erika K. Lunder. lip. (R44617) 

Court Finds Another State Law Preempted by ERISA, 
byjon O. Shimabukuro. 1 p. (WSLG1511) 

Court-Ordered Access to Smart Phones: In Brief, 

by Kristin Finklea, Chris Jaikaran and Richard M. 
Thompson II. 7 p. (R44396) 


Courts Grapple with States’ Efforts to Bar Medicaid 

Funds from Providers that Also Perform Abortions, 
by Edward C. Liu. 1 p. (WSLG1443) 

Criminal Justice Reform: One Judge’s View, 
by Charles Doyle. 1 p. (WSLG1473) 

CRS Presents the Federal Law Update - Spring 2016, 
by Larry M. Eig. 1 p. (WSLG1536) 

Current Issues in Administrative Law, by Jared P. Cole 
and Todd Garvey. (WRE00141) 

Current Issues in Administrative Law, by Todd Garvey 
and Jared P. Cole. (WVB00097) 

The Dallas Police Shootings and Federal Support for 
Law Enforcement Safety, by Nathan James. 

4 p. (IN10527) 

Data Security and Breach Notification Legislation: 
Selected Legal Issues, by Alissa M. Dolan. 

21 p. (R44326) 

D.C. Circuit Court Requires Jarkesy to Exhaust SEC 
Administrative Forum before Court Challenge, 
by Michael V. Seitzinger. 1 p. (WSLG1434) 

DC Circuit Holds an Agency Official’s Private Email 
Account Not Beyond the Reach of FOIA, 
by Gina Stevens. 1 p. (WSLG1637) 

The Death of Justice Scalia: Procedural Issues Arising 
on an Eight-Member Supreme Court, by Andrew 
Nolan. 10 p. (R44400) 

Death Penalty Stands in Deference to State Court, 
by Charles Doyle. 1 p. (WSLG1521) 

DEA Will Not Reschedule Marijuana, But May Expand 
Number of Growers of Research Marijuana, 
by Todd Garvey. 1 p. (WSLG1667) 

Deconstructing the Justice Against Sponsors of Terrorism 
Act, by Stephen P. Mulligan. 1 p. (WSLG1672) 

Delivery Drones: Coming to the Sky Near You?, 
by Alissa M. Dolan. 1 p. (WSLG1571) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


98 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


The Department of Justice Suspends Equitable Sharing 
Payments Under the Assets Forfeiture Program, 
by Nathan James and Richard M. Thompson II. 3 p. 
(IN10435) 

Department of Labor’s Persuader Rule Finalized, 
Challenged, by Rodney M. Perry. 1 p. 

(WSLG1561) 

Departments of Education and Justice Release Guidance 
on Transgender Students, by Jody Feder. 1 p. 
(WSLG1576) 

Developments in the Law of Abortion and Reproductive 
Health, by Jon O. Shimabukuro. (WRE00120) 

Developments in the Law of Abortion and Reproductive 
Health, by Jon O. Shimabukuro. (WVB00073) 

Digital Searches and Seizures: Overview of Proposed 
Amendments to Rule 41 of the Rules of Criminal 
Procedure, by Richard M. Thompson II. 9 p. 
(R44547) 

District Court Holds Appropriations Language Limits 
Enforcement of Federal Marijuana Prohibition, 
byTodd Garvey. 1 p. (WSLG1451) 

District Court Responds to Supreme Court’s Inclusive 
Communities Decision on Remand, by David H. 
Carpenter. 1 p. (WSLG1430) 

Does a Defendant Have a Right to Speedy Sentencing 
Proceedings?, by Sarah S. Herman. 1 p. 
(WSLG1525) 

Does a Guidelines Calculation Error Always Affect 

a Defendant’s Substantial Rights? Supreme Court 
to Decide, by Sarah S. Herman. 1 p. (WSLG1516) 

Does the Hobbs Act Protect Local Drug Dealers?, 
by Charles Doyle. 1 p. (WSLG1530) 

DOJ Brings Forfeiture Action to Seize and Return 
II Billion Embezzled Malaysian Government 
Assets, by M. Maureen Murphy. 1 p. (WSLG1638) 

Dude, Where’s My Jurisdiction? Congressional Efforts 
to Strip Federal Courts of Jurisdiction, by Sarah S. 
Herman. 1 p. (WSLG1640) 


Eleventh Circuit Joins Other Federal Circuit Courts in 
Upholding SEC In-House Administrative Forum, 
by Michael V. Seitzinger. 1 p. (WSLG1618) 

Eleventh Circuit’s Ruling on Professional Speech and 
Second Amendment Widens the Split among the 
Circuits, by Kiarash Rahnama, Jennifer A. Staman, 
Vivian S. Chu and Kathleen Ann Ruane. 1 p. 
(WSLG1633) 

Encryption: Selected Legal Issues, by Chris Jaikaran and 
Richard M. Thompson II. 28 p. (R44407) 

The Essential Merrick Garland Reader: What Cases 
Should You Read on Judge Garland?, by Michael 
John Garcia, Andrew Nolan and Kate M. Manuel. 

1 p. (WSLG1535) 

Executive Agreements: An Introduction, 

by Michael John Garcia. 1 p. (IG10002) 

The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) Child Labor 
Provisions, by Jon O. Shimabukuro and Sarah A. 
Donovan. 19 p. (R44548) 

Fall 2016 Federal Law Update (FLU) Preview, by Robert 
H. Nickel. (WVB00109) 

The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), by Sarah A. 
Donovan and Rodney M. Perry. 2 p. (IF10329) 

The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA): 

Background and Supreme Court Cases, by Rodney 
M. Perry. 8 p. (R44289) 

FATCA Reporting on U.S. Accounts: Recent Legal 
Developments, by Carol A. Pettit and Erika K. 
Lunder. 16 p. (R44616) 

FCC Issues Proposed Privacy Rule for Broadband 

Internet Service Providers (ISPs), by Gina Stevens. 

1 p. (WSLG1565) 

The Federal Circuit Rules on Trademarks Considered 
Offensive: May Affect Redskins Trademark 
Dispute, by Samuel A. Lapin. 1 p. (WSLG1632) 

Federal Court Declines to Bar the Resettlement of 

Syrian Refugees in Texas, by Kate M. Manuel. 1 p. 
(WSLG1504) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


99 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


Federal Court Holds that Lost Tax Revenue is Property 
Under The Takings Clause, by David H. Carpenter. 
1 p. (WSLG1589) 

Federal Court Prevents California From Requiring that a 
501(c)(3) Disclose its Donors, by Erika K. Lunder. 
1 p. (WSLG1591) 

Federal Court Rules That Bureau of Land Management 
Likely Lacks Authority to Promulgate Fracking 
Rule, by Brandon J. Murrill. 1 p. (WSLG1424) 

Federal Court Weighs in on “VisaGate 2015”: Part 1, 
the Visa Bulletin and Recent Revisions to It, 
by Kate M. Manuel. 1 p. (WSLG1431) 

Federal Court Weighs in on “VisaGate 2015”: Part 2, 
the Court’s Decision and Unresolved Issues, 
by Kate M. Manuel. 1 p. (WSLG1432) 

Federal District Courts Disagree on Nonreligious 
Objections to Contraceptive Coverage 
Requirement, by Cynthia Brown. 1 p. 
(WSLG1492) 

Federal Law on Killing a State or Local Police Officer, 
by Richard M. Thompson II. 1 p. (WSLG1619) 

Federal Law Update: Fall 2016, by Alexandra M. Wyatt 
and Linda Tsang. (WPE10319) 

Federal Law Update: Fall 2016, by Andrew Nolan, Jody 
Feder, Jack Maskell, Jon O. Shimbukuro and Kate 
M. Manuel. (WPE10313) 

Federal Law Update: Fall 2016, by Brandon J. Murrill 
and Stephen P. Mulligan. (WPE10323) 

Federal Law Update: Fall 2016, by Brian T. Yeh. 
(WPE10321) 

Federal Law Update: Fall 2016, by Charles Doyle and 
Edward C. Liu. (WPE10314) 

Federal Law Update: Fall 2016, by Cynthia Brown. 
(WPE10324) 

Federal Law Update: Fall 2016, by Denise J. Penn, Adam 
Vann and Jennifer A. Staman. (WPE10318) 


Federal Law Update: Fall 2016, by Erika K. Lunder and 
Carol A. Pettit. (WPE10317) 

Federal Law Update: Fall 2016, by Jared P. Cole and 
Todd Garvey. (WPE10315) 

Federal Law Update: Fall 2016, by Kate M. Manuel. 
(WPE10316) 

Federal Law Update: Fall 2016, by Michael John Garcia, 
Sarah S. Herman and Vivian S. Chu. (WPE10322) 

Federal Law Update: Fall 2016, by Richard M. Thompson 
II and Kathleen Ann Ruane. (WPE10320) 

Federal Law Update: Spring 2016, by Alexandra M. 
Wyatt. (WPE10160) 

Federal Law Update: Spring 2016, by Andrew Nolan, 
Cynthia Brown, Jon O. Shimabukuro and Kate M. 
Manuel. (WPE10165) 

Federal Law Update: Spring 2016, by Brandon J. Murrill. 
(WPE10156) 

Federal Law Update: Spring 2016, by Jack Maskell and 
Cynthia Brown. (WPE10154) 

Federal Law Update: Spring 2016, by Jared P. Cole and 
Todd Garvey. (WPE10161) 

Federal Law Update: Spring 2016, by Jody Feder. 
(WPE10157) 

Federal Law Update: Spring 2016, by Kenneth R. 
Thomas. (WPE10164) 

Federal Law Update: Spring 2016, by L. Paige Whitaker. 
(WPE10158) 

Federal Support for Drug Courts: In Brief, 
by Lisa N. Sacco. 10 p. (R44467) 

Fed Moves to Dismiss Suit by Colorado Credit Union 
Serving Cannabis Businesses, by M. Maureen 
Murphy. 1 p. (WSLG1411) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


100 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


Fifth Circuit Declines to Lift Injunction Barring 

Implementation of the Obama Administration’s 
2014 Deferred Action Programs, by Sarah S. 
Herman and Kate M. Manuel. 1 p. (WSLG1437) 

Final Senate Action on U.S. Circuit and District Court 
Nominations During a President’s Eighth Year in 
Office, by Barry J. McMillion. lip. (R44353) 

Financial Services and Cybersecurity: The Federal Role, 
by M. Maureen Murphy and N. Eric Weiss. 29 p. 
(R44429) 

FinCEN Gets a Remand to Revamp Its Regulation 
to Bar FBME Bank From the U.S. Financial 
System, by M. Maureen Murphy. 1 p. 
(WSLG1447) 

FinCEN Seeks Shell-Company Transparency, by 
M. Maureen Murphy. 1 p. (WSLG1588) 

FinCEN’s Money Laundering Death Penalty 

Temporarily Blocked, by M. Maureen Murphy. 1 p. 
(WSLG1388) 

Firearms Eligibility for Foreign Nationals in the United 
States, by Vivian S. Chu, Michael John Garcia and 
Rodney M. Perry. 1 p. (WSLG1467) 

First Appellate Court Decision after Supreme Court’s 
Halliburton II Denies Class Certification, 
by Michael V. Seitzinger. 1 p. (WSLG1582) 

First Circuit Once Again Strikes Down Puerto Rico’s 
Same-Sex Marriage Ban, by Rodney M. Perry. 1 p. 
(WSLG1572) 

First Reported Lawsuit Filed Challenging a Denial of 
Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals, by Kate 
M. Manuel. 1 p. (WSLG1641) 


FLU Preview: Attorney-Client Privilege: Ethical 

Considerations for Attorneys, by Cynthia Brown. 

1 p. (WSLG1652) 

FLU Preview: Beyond the Buy American Act: The 

Interplay of Domestic Content Restrictions with 
International Trade Obligations, by Brandon J. 
Murrill and Stephen P. Mulligan. 

1 p. (WSLG1634) 

FLU Preview: Class Action Litigation: The Court 
and Congress, by Kenneth R. Thomas. 1 p. 
(WSLG1547) 

FLU Preview: Clean Power Plan and Clean Water Rule: 
Litigation Update, by Alexandra M. Wyatt. 1 p. 
(WSLG1541) 

FLU Preview: Criminal Law & Procedure, by Charles 
Doyle and Sarah S. Herman. 1 p. (WSLG1537) 

FLU Preview: Criminal Prosecutions Involving Classified 
Information, by Edward C. Liu and Charles Doyle. 
1 p. (WSLG1656) 

FLU Preview: Current Issues in Administrative Law, by 
Todd Garvey and Jared P. Cole. 1 p. (WSLG1553) 

FLU Preview: Deterring Terrorism, Cyber Attacks, 

and Other Threats in the Digital Age, by Richard 
M. Thompson II and Kathleen Ann Ruane. 1 p. 
(WSLG1661) 

FLU Preview: Developments in International Tax Law, 
by Carol A. Pettit and Erika K. Lunder. 

1 p. (WSLG1659) 

FLU Preview: Election 2016: Political Corruption and 
Campaign Activity, by Jack Maskell and Cynthia 
Brown. 1 p. (WSLG1551) 


First Spoofing Conviction Gives Teeth to Dodd-Frank in FLU Preview: Election 2016: Redistricting, Voting, and 
Prosecuting Commodities Violations, by Michael Campaign Finance, by L. Paige Whitaker. 1 p. 

V. Seitzinger. 1 p. (WSLG1457) (WSLG1550) 


Five Mega-Banks’ Living Wills Are Insufficient, 
by David H. Carpenter. 1 p. (WSLG1556) 

FLU Preview: Access to Digital Data: The Legal Debate 
over Government Surveillance and Encryption, 
by Richard M. Thompson II. 1 p. (WSLG1540) 


FLU Preview: Energy and Environment Legal Update 
- Nuclear Waste Management and Methane 
Emission Regulations, by Alexandra M. Wyatt and 
Linda Tsang. 1 p. (WSLG1636) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


101 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


FLU Preview: International Law and the U.S. Legal 
System - Congress’s Role in Foreign Affairs, 
byjennifer K. Elsea. 1 p. (WSLG1403) 

FLU Preview: Issues of Professional Responsibility for 
Congressional Counsel and Lobbyists, 
by Cynthia Brown. 1 p. (WSLG1410) 

FLU Preview: Justice Antonin Scalia’s Legacy and the 
Future of the Supreme Court, by Kate M. Manuel 
and Andrew Nolan. 1 p. (WSLG1539) 

FLU Preview: Legal Developments in Education: 

Affirmative Action, Sexual Violence, and Gender 
Identity, by Jody Feder. 1 p. (WSLG1549) 

FLU Preview: Limits on Agency Structure and Makeup: 
Selected Legal Developments, by Todd Garvey and 
Jared P. Cole. 1 p. (WSLG1663) 

FLU Preview: National Security Law Update: FISA 

Reform and Wartime Detainee Policy, by Edward 
C. Liu and Jennifer K. Elsea. 1 p. (WSLG1548) 

FLU Preview: Preemption and the Balance of State and 
Federal Authorities in Heavily Regulated Areas of 
Law, byjennifer A. Staman, Denise J. Penn and 
Adam Vann. 1 p. (WSLG1643) 

FLU Preview: Second Amendment Vost-Heller 
and Gun Legislation: Selected Legal Issues, 
by Sarah S. Herman and Michael John Garcia. 1 p. 
(WSLG1658) 

FLU Preview: Statutory Interpretation Decisions from 
the Supreme Court’s October 2015 Term, 
by Kate M. Manuel. 1 p. (WSLG1662) 

FLU Preview: The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement: 
Labor and Environmental Obligations, Investor- 
State Dispute Settlement, and Other Legal Issues, 
by Brandon J. Murrill. 1 p. (WSLG1542) 

FLU Preview: U.S. Supreme Court 2015 Term — Cases 
and Interpretation, by Andrew Nolan, Kate M. 
Manuel, Jon O. Shimabukuro and Cynthia Brown. 
1 p. (WSLG1538) 


FLU Preview: U.S. Supreme Court 2015 Term Review: 
Cases and Interpretation, by Jody Feder, Kate M. 
Manuel, Jon O. Shimabukuro, Andrew Nolan and 
Jack Maskell. 1 p. (WSLG1657) 

Former U.S. Hostages of Iran to be Eligible for 
Compensation, by Jennifer K. Elsea. 1 p. 
(WSLG1471) 

Foster v. Chatman Raises Potential New Approaches 
to Batson Challenges, by Sarah S. Herman. 1 p. 
(WSLG1520) 

The Freedom of Information Act Turns Fifty 8c Is 
Revised, by Gina Stevens. 1 p. (WSLG1611) 

Free-Riders or Compelled Riders? Key Takeaways as 
Court Considers Major Union Dues Case, 
by Andrew Nolan. 1 p. (WSLG1477) 

Frequently Asked Questions Regarding the Supreme 
Court’s 4-4 Split on Immigration, by Kate M. 
Manuel. 1 p. (WSLG1607) 

Friended, but not Friends: Federal Ethics Authorities 
Address Role of Social Media in Politics, 
by Cynthia Brown. 1 p. (WSLG1552) 

FSOC Appeals District Court Rejection of Its MetLife 
SiFi Designation as “Profoundly Mistaken,” 
by M. Maureen Murphy. 1 p. (WSLG1620) 

FSOC Rescinds GE Capital’s Designation as a 

Systemically Important Financial Institution, 
by David H. Carpenter. 1 p. (WSLG1623) 

FTC Clarifies Scope of Consumer Unfairness 

Jurisdiction 8c Holds That the Unauthorized 
Disclosure of Sensitive Medical Information Alone 
Qualifies as “Substantial Injury” under the FTC 
Act, by Gina Stevens. 1 p. (WSLG1670) 

FY2017 Appropriations for the Department of Justice, 
by Nathan James. 1 p. (R44424) 

FY2017 Appropriations for the Department of Justice 
Grant Programs, by Nathan James. 5 p. (R44430) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


102 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


GAO Decision Raises New Questions about VA 
Contracting with Veteran-Owned Small 
Businesses, by Kate M. Manuel. 1 p. (WSLG1506) 

Gender Identity Discrimination in Public Education: 

A Legal Analysis, by Jody Feder. 6 p. (R44471) 

General Policy Statements: Legal Overview, by Todd 
Garvey and Jared P. Cole. 26 p. (R44468) 

The Good Cause Exception to Notice and Comment 
Rulemaking: Judicial Review of Agency Action, 
byjared P. Cole. 19 p. (R44356) 

Gun Control: CRS Experts, by William J. Krouse. 

8 p. (R44328) 

Gun Violence Reduction Executive Actions, January 4, 
2016: Brief Summary, by William J. Krouse. 2 p. 
(IN10429) 

Haranguing in the Court, by Kathleen Ann Ruane. 

1 p. (WSLG1414) 

Hedge Funds and the Securities Exchange Act’s Section 
13(d) Reporting Requirements, by Michael V. 
Seitzinger. 1 p. (WSLG1472) 

Heroin Trafficking in the United States, 
by Kristin Finklea. 16 p. (R44599) 

History and Conflict at Malheur National Wildlife 
Refuge, by M. Lynne Corn. 3 p. (IN10427) 

House Approves Measure to Prevent Return of GTMO 
to Cuba without Congress’s Say So, by Jennifer K. 
Elsea. 1 p. (WSLG1586) 

The House May Vote to File an Amicus Brief: Is 
this Unprecedented?, by Alissa M. Dolan. 1 p. 
(WSLG1517) 

House of Representatives Successfully Challenges 
Payment of ACA Cost-sharing Subsidies to 
Insurers, but Court Stays Injunction Pending 
Appeal, by Jennifer A. Staman and Edward C. Liu. 
1 p. (WSLG1577) 

House of Representatives v. Burwell and Congressional 

Standing to Sue, by Alissa M. Dolan. 21 p. (R44450) 


How Broad Is the EPA’s General Waiver Authority 

under the Renewable Fuel Standard?, by Brandon J. 
Murrill. 1 p. (WSLG1409) 

How Can the Results of a Presidential Election Be 

Contested?, by Jack Maskell and L. Paige Whitaker. 
1 p. (WSLG1650) 

How Is the “Total Value” of All Prime Contract Awards 
to Be Determined for Purposes of the Federal 
Government’s Small Business Goaling Reports?, 
by Kate M. Manuel. 1 p. (WSLG1592) 

H.R. 1927: Congress Proposes Additional Prerequisite 

for Class-Action Certification, by Sarah S. Herman. 
1 p. (WSLG1475) 

Human Trafficking and Forced Labor: Trends in Import 
Restrictions, by Liana W. Rosen, Ashley Feng and 
M. Angeles Villarreal. 3 p. (IN10541) 

Impeachment and Removal, byjared P. Cole and Todd 
Garvey. 24 p. (R44260) 

Implications of Restricting the Use of Conversion 

Therapy for Religious Providers, by Cynthia Brown. 
1 p. (WSLG1452) 

Independent Bids for President, by Jack Maskell and L. 
Paige Whitaker. 1 p. (WSLG1474) 

Intent Requirements in Criminal Provisions Regarding 
the Unauthorized Disclosure of Classified 
Information, by Edward C. Liu. 1 p. (WSLG1624) 

Interior Immigration Enforcement: Criminal Alien 
Programs, by William A. Kandel. 24 p. (R44627) 

International Law and The U.S. Legal System: Congress’s 
Role in Foreign Affairs, by Jennifer K. Elsea. 
(WRE00121) 

International Law and The U.S. Legal System: Congress’s 
Role in Foreign Affairs, by Jennifer K. Elsea. 
(WVB00074) 

Iran’s Central Bank Will Have Its Day in the Supreme 
Court, by M. Maureen Murphy and Jennifer K. 
Elsea. 1 p. (WSLG1420) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


103 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


IRS Proposes Controversial Regulations Regarding 
Charity Donors’ SSNs, by Erika K. Lunder. 

1 p. (WSLG1463) 

The Islamic State’s Acolytes and the Challenges They 
Pose to U.S. Law Enforcement, by Jerome P. 
Bjelopera. 15 p. (R44521) 

Is This the First Step in Undoing Mass Incarceration? 
6,000 Federal Drug Offenders Set to be Released, 
by Brian T. Yeh and Nathan James. 

4 p. (IN 103 80) 

Is Violent Crime in the United States Increasing?, 
by Nathan James. 10 p. (R44259) 

Joint Employers and the National Labor Relations 
Board’s “Restated” Standard, by Jon O. 
Shimabukuro. 1 p. (WSLG1407) 

Judge Garland and the IRS’s Z Street Case, by Erika K. 
Lunder. 1 p. (WSLG1544) 

Judge Merrick Garland: His Jurisprudence and Potential 
Impact on the Supreme Court, by Brandon J. 
Murrill, Kate M. Manuel, Andrew Nolan, Jennifer 
K. Elsea, Alexandra M. Wyatt, Michael John 
Garcia, Todd Garvey, Sarah S. Herman, Edward C. 
Liu, Kathleen Ann Ruane, Richard M. Thompson 
II, L. Paige Whitaker, Vivian S. Chu, Jared P. Cole, 
Cynthia Brown and Jody Feder. 78 p. (R44479) 

Judicial Redress Act 101 - What to Know as Senate 
Contemplates Passing New Privacy Law, 
by Richard M. Thompson II. 1 p. (WSLG1484) 

Judiciary Appropriations, FY2017, by Matthew E. 
Glassman. 10 p. (R44526) 

Judiciary Budget Request, FY2015, by Matthew E. 
Glassman. 2 p. (IF10459) 

Judiciary Budget Request, FY2017, by Matthew E. 
Glassman. 2 p. (IF10356) 

Justice Antonin Scalia: His Jurisprudence and the Impact 
of the New Supreme Court Vacancy, by Kate M. 
Manuel, Andrew Nolan and Brandon J. Murrill. 

46 p. (R44419) 


Justice Antonin Scalia’s Last Opinion, by Charles Doyle. 

1 p. (WSLG1512) 

Justice Antonin Scalia’s Legacy and the Future of the 
Supreme Court, by Kate M. Manuel and Andrew 
Nolan. (WRE00137) 

Justice Department and North Carolina Clash Over State 
Bathroom Law, by Jody Feder. 1 p. (WSLG1573) 

Justice for United States Victims of State Sponsored 

Terrorism Act: Eligibility and Funding, by Jennifer 
K. Elsea. 2 p. (IF10341) 

Justice for Victims ofTrafficking Act of 2015: Changes 
to Domestic Human Trafficking Policies, by Alison 
Siskin, Kristin Finklea and Adrienne L. Fernandes- 
Alcantara. 17 p. (R44315) 

Justices Asked to Ignore Tribal Domestic Violence 

Convictions, by Charles Doyle. 1 p. (WSLG1546) 

Kids’ Crimes Are Different: Life Without Parole 
Ban Made Retroactive, by Charles Doyle. 1 p. 
(WSLG1528) 

Labor Department Issues Final Rule on Fiduciaries and 
Investment Advice, by Jon O. Shimabukuro and 
Jennifer A. Staman. 1 p. (WSLG1562) 

Landowners Can Challenge Jurisdictional 

Determinations that their Property Contains 
Waters of the United States, by Stephen P. 
Mulligan. 1 p. (WSLG1597) 

The Latest Updates on the Persuader Rule, by Rodney M. 
Perry. 1 p. (WSLG1654) 

Legal Issues Associated with FDA Standards of Identity: 
In Brief, by Emily M. Lanza. 8 p. (R44393) 

Legal Overview of Challenges to Contraceptive Coverage 
Accommodation by Nonprofit Organizations, 
by Cynthia Brown. 2 p. (IF10378) 

The Legal Process to Reschedule Marijuana, 
by Todd Garvey. 1 p. (WSLG1423) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


104 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


Legal Tools to Deter Travel by Suspected Terrorists: 

A Brief Primer, by Jared P. Cole and Michael John 
Garcia. 1 p. (WSLG1438) 

Legislative Responses to Recognition of Same-Sex 

Marriage Address Potential Religious Implications, 
by Cynthia Brown. 1 p. (WSLG1428) 

Majority, Concurring, and Dissenting Opinions 

Authored by Judge Merrick Garland, by R. Chuck 
Mason, Jennifer A. Staman, Jared P. Cole, Brian 
T. Yeh, David H. Carpenter, Jon O. Shimabukuro, 
Michael V. Seitzinger, Kathleen Ann Ruane, 

Emily E. Roberts, Brandon J. Murrill and Erika K. 
Lunder. 68 p. (R44484) 

Mandatory Arbitration Agreements and Concerted 

Activity Under the NLRA, by Jon O. Shimabukuro. 
1 p. (WSLG1653) 

Mass Murder with Firearms, by William J. Krouse. 
(WPE2695) 

Mass Murder with Firearms, by William J. Krouse. 
(WRE00126) 

Mass Murder with Firearms, by William J. Krouse. 
(WVB00081) 

Mens Rea Reform: A Brief Overview, by Richard M. 
Thompson II. 19 p. (R44464) 

Merrick Garland’s Nomination to the Supreme Court: 
Initial Observations, by Andrew Nolan. 1 p. 
(WSLG1518) 

The Microsoft Ireland Decision: U.S. Appeals Court 
Rules that ECPA Does Not Require Internet 
Service Providers To Produce Electronic 
Communications Stored Overseas, by Stephen P. 
Mulligan. 1 p. (WSLG1660) 

Music Licensing and the DOJ’s Consent Decrees, 
by Brian T. Yeh and Dana A. Scherer. 2 p. 

(IF10445) 

Must an Overseas Resident Update His U.S. Sex 
Registration: The Courts Cannot Agree, 
by Charles Doyle. 1 p. (WSLG1508) 


Nationwide Injunctions: Recent Rulings Raise Questions 
about Nationwide Reach of a Single Federal Court, 
by Sarah S. Herman. 1 p. (WSLG1455) 

Nebraska v. Parker: Supreme Court Rules Against 
de facto Diminishment of Indian Reservation, 
Holding only Congress can Diminish Reservations, 
by Jane M. Smith. 1 p. (WSLG1617) 

Net Neutrality: H.R. 2666 and Broadband Rate 
Regulation, by Kathleen Ann Ruane. 1 p. 
(WSLG1502) 

Net Neutrality: Third Time Actually Is a Charm, 
by Kathleen Ann Ruane. 1 p. (WSLG1622) 

New Circuit Split: Seventh Circuit Rules that Unlawfully 
Present Aliens with “Extensive Ties” to the United 
States Have Second Amendment Rights, by Sarah 
S. Herman. 1 p. (WSLG1465) 

New Jersey Loses Again In Its Battle for Sports Betting, 
by Brian T. Yeh. 1 p. (WSLG1642) 

NLRB Finds Collective Bargaining Rights for 

Student Assistants, by Jon O. Shimabukuro. 1 p. 
(WSLG1668) 

The NLRB’s Enforcement of the NLRA Against Tribal 
Employers and the Tribal Labor Sovereignty Act of 
2015, H.R. 511 and S. 248, by Jane M. Smith. 8 p. 
(R44270) 

No Answer for Now: Supreme Court Remands 

Nonprofit Contraceptive Coverage Challenges, 
by Cynthia Brown. 1 p. (WSLG1579) 

No Internet for You: Supervised Release and Internet 
Bans for Sex Offenders Convicted of Child 
Pornography Offenses, by Alison M. Smith. 1 p. 
(WSLG1493) 

Nominations to the Supreme Court During Presidential 
Election Years (1900-Present), by Barry J. 
McMillion. 3 p. (IN 10455) 

Nominations to the Supreme Court During Years of 

Divided and Unified Party Government, by Barry J. 
McMillion. 3 p. (IN 1045 8) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


105 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


Nonprofit Challenges to the Contraceptive Coverage 

Requirement: The Meaning of Substantial Burdens 
on Religious Exercise Under the Religious Freedom 
Restoration Act, by Cynthia Brown. 18 p. (R44422) 

No Suing Police for Fatally Ending a High- 

Speed Chase, by Charles Doyle. 1 p. (WSLG1522) 

“Notwithstanding Any Other Provision of Law”: Does 
It Really Mean That No Other Provisions of Law 
Apply?, by Kate M. Manuel. 1 p. (WSLG1490) 

Number of Hispanic U.S. Circuit and District Court 
Judges: Overview and Analysis, by Barry J. 
McMillion. 3 p. (IN10373) 

Obama Administration Asks Supreme Court to Take 
Immediate Action to Review Fifth Circuit Ruling 
Blocking 2014 Deferred-Action Programs: Now 
What?, by Sarah S. Herman. 

1 p. (WSLG1464) 

The Obama Administration’s November 20,2014, 
Actions as to Immigration: Pending Legal 
Challenges One Year Later, by Kate M. Manuel. 

1 p. (WSLG1442) 

Obama Announces Effort to “Ban the Box” in Federal 
Hiring, by Jody Feder and Rodney M. Perry. 1 p. 
(WSLG1439) 

Oil to Spare: The House Passes a Repeal of Crude 
Oil Export Restrictions, by Adam Vann. 1 p. 
(WSLG1419) 

Omnibus Provisions Affecting 501(c)(4) Social Welfare 
Organizations, by Erika K. Lunder. 

1 p. (WSLG1469) 

One Person, One Vote: Supreme Court Upholds 

States Drawing Legislative Districts Based on 
Total Population, by L. Paige Whitaker. 1 p. 
(WSLG1563) 

The Orlando Mass Shooting: CRS Experts, by Lisa 
Seghetti. 3 p. (R44537) 

Orlando Nightclub Mass Shooting: Gun Checks and 
Terrorist Watchlists, by William J. Krouse. 2 p. 
(IN10509) 


OSHA Penalties to Increase for the First Time in Nearly 
25 Years, by Rodney M. Perry. 1 p. (WSLG1478) 

OSHA Rule Makes Workplace Injury and Illness Data 
Publicly Available, by Rodney M. Perry. 1 p. 
(WSLG1585) 

Out of wedlock and out of luck for U.S. citizenship 
at birth?, by Margaret Mikyung Lee. 1 p. 
(WSLG1673) 

Partisanship and Population Equality: Supreme 

Court Will Hear Oral Arguments in Harris v. 
Arizona Independent Redistricting Commission 
on December 8, by L. Paige Whitaker. 1 p. 
(WSLG1444) 

Patent Cases in the October 2015 Term of the U.S. 
Supreme Court: Halo Electronics v. Pulse 
Electronics and Cuozzo Speed Technologies v. Lee, 
by Brian T. Yeh. 19 p. (R44622) 

Payday Lenders’ Challenge to Banking Regulators 

Cooperation in “Operation Choke Point” Survives 
a Motion to Dismiss, by M. Maureen Murphy. 1 p. 
(WSLG1433) 

Pharmaceutical Patent-Antitrust: Reverse Payment 
Settlements and Product Hopping, by John R. 
Thomas. 16 p. (R44222) 

Police Use of Force and Local Law Enforcement Reform, 
by Richard M. Thompson II and Jared P. Cole. 
(WRE00118) 

Police Use of Force and Local Law Enforcement Reform, 
by Richard M. Thompson II and Jared P. Cole. 
(WVB00071) 

Police Use of Force: Rules, Remedies, and Reforms, 
by Richard M. Thompson II. 26 p. (R44256) 

Post -Heller Second Amendment Jurisprudence, 
by Sarah S. Herman. 38 p. (R44618) 

President Obama Announces Executive Actions to 

“Reduce Gun Violence,” by Rodney M. Perry and 
Sarah S. Herman. 1 p. (WSLG1476) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


106 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


The President’s Pardon Power and Legal Effects on 
Collateral Consequences, by Vivian S. Chu. 

18 p. (R44571) 

Privilege Against Self-Incrimination Supplements 
Journalist Privilege, by Charles Doyle. 1 p. 
(WSLG1417) 

Provisions in the Tax Extenders Bill Affecting 501(c)(4) 
Social Welfare Organizations, by Erika K. Lunder. 

1 p. (WSLG1468) 

Puerto Rico’s “New” Excise Tax on U.S. Businesses: An 
Indirect Subsidy?, by Carol A. Pettit and Erika K. 
Lunder. 1 p. (WSLG1578) 

Recent Court Decisions on Gender Identity 

Discrimination in Education: Part I, by Jody Feder 
and Todd Garvey. 1 p. (WSLG1651) 

Recent Court Decisions on Gender Identity 
Discrimination in Education: Part II, 
by Jody Feder. 1 p. (WSLG1664) 

Recent Firearms Rulings: Part 1 - A Second Amendment 
Right to Sell Firearms?, by Sarah S. Herman. 1 p. 
(WSLG1612) 

Recent Firearms Rulings Part 2 - Examining the 

Scope Of The Second Amendment: The Federal 
District Court for D.C. again Tackles the 
District’s Firearms Laws, by Vivian S. Chu. 1 p. 
(WSLG1615) 

Recognition of Same-Sex Marriage: Implications for 
Religious Objections, by Erika K. Lunder and 
Cynthia Brown. 30 p. (R44244) 

Regulators Reach an ~$5 Billion Settlement with 

Goldman Sachs, by Erika K. Lunder and David H. 
Carpenter. 1 p. (WSLG1557) 

Repair, Modification, or Resale of Software-Enabled 
Consumer Electronic Devices: Copyright Law 
Issues, by Brian T. Yeh. 22 p. (R44590) 

Robocalls and Robotexts to Mobile Phones: No 

Exemption for Political Campaigns, by Kathleen 
Ann Ruane. 1 p. (WSLG1567) 


SEC Adopts New Resource Extraction Rules, 

by Michael V. Seitzinger. 1 p. (WSLG1627) 

Second Circuit Reverses DOJ’s $1.2 Billion Judgment 

Against Countrywide, by M. Maureen Murphy. 1 p. 
(WSLG1593) 

Second Circuit Upholds SEC’s In-House Administrative 
Forum, by Michael V. Seitzinger. 1 p. (WSLG1601) 

Securities and Exchange Commission’s Administrative 

Forum: Background and Selected Legal Challenges, 
by Michael V. Seitzinger. 16 p. (R44280) 

SEC Whistleblowers: Split in the Federal Circuit Courts 
on Dodd-Frank Section, by Michael V. Seitzinger. 

1 p. (WSLG1412) 

Senate Action on U.S. Circuit and District Court 
Nominations During the Eighth Year of a 
Presidency, by Barry J. McMillion. 5 p. (IN10519) 

Senate Judiciary Committee Hearings for Supreme 
Court Nominations: Historical Overview 
and Data, by Barry J. McMillion. 4 p. (IN10476) 

Senate Passes Cybersecurity Information Sharing 
Bill-What’s Next?, by Andrew Nolan. 1 p. 
(WSLG1429) 

Sentence Reform Acts: S. 2123 and H.R. 3713, 
by Charles Doyle, lip. (R44226) 

The Sentencing Reform Act of 2015 (H.R. 3713): 

A Summary, by Charles Doyle. 8 p. (R44492) 

Sentencing Reform: Comparison of Selected Proposals, 
by Jared P. Cole and Charles Doyle. 18 p. (R44246) 

Separation of Powers: An Overview, by Matthew E. 
Glassman. 20 p. (R44334) 

Sixth Circuit Halts “Waters of the United States” Rule 
Nationwide, Before Deciding Whether It Has 
Jurisdiction, by Sarah S. Herman and Alexandra M. 
Wyatt. 1 p. (WSLG1416) 

Sixth Circuit Rules Against IRS in 501(c)(4) Case, 
by Erika K. Lunder. 1 p. (WSLG1543) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


107 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


Sixth Circuit Will Hear Challenges to EPA’s Clean 
Water Act Jurisdiction (“Waters of the United 
States”) Rule, but Litigation Uncertainties 
Remain Unresolved, by Alexandra M. Wyatt. 1 p. 
(WSLG1503) 

Social Security and Same-Sex Marriage: Post Obergefell 
v. Hodges, by Dawn Nuschler, William R. Morton 
and Emily M. Lanza. 13 p. (R44314) 

States Ask Supreme Court to Adjudicate Disposition of 
Millions in Unclaimed MoneyGram Funds, by M. 
Maureen Murphy. 1 p. (WSLG1604) 

States Take Actions in Conflict with Supreme Court’s 
Internet Sales Tax Standard, by Erika K. Lunder. 

1 p. (WSLG1568) 

Steering an Outboard or Captain of a Freighter: The 
Sentence Enhancement Is the Same, by Charles 
Doyle. 1 p. (WSLG1500) 

STEM-OPT Extension for F-l Visas Survives 

Challenge in Federal Court despite Procedural 
Rulemaking Error, by Sarah S. Herman. 1 p. 
(WSLG1425) 

Still Fair Use for Google Books: Second Circuit Ruling 
in Authors Guild v. Google, by Emily M. Lanza. 

1 p. (WSLG1448) 

Supreme Court 2015 Term Preview: Cases and 

Interpretation, by Andrew Nolan. (WRE00117) 

Supreme Court 2015 Term Preview: Cases and 

Interpretation, by Andrew Nolan. (WVB00070) 

Supreme Court Allows Investor Lawsuit to Remain 
in State Court, by Michael V. Seitzinger. 1 p. 
(WSLG1583) 

Supreme Court Appointment Process: Consideration 
by the Senate Judiciary Committee, by Barry J. 
McMillion. 20 p. (R44236) 

Supreme Court Appointment Process: President’s 

Selection of a Nominee, by Barry J. McMillion. 

23 p. (R44235) 


Supreme Court Appointment Process: Senate Debate 
and Confirmation Vote, by Barry J. McMillion. 

24 p. (R44234) 

Supreme Court Books Copyright Attorneys’ 

Fees Case, by Emily M. Lanza. 1 p. (WSLG1488) 

Supreme Court Clarifies Timing of Discrimination 
Claims Involving Constructive Discharge, 
by Jon O. Shimabukuro. 1 p. (WSLG1590) 

Supreme Court Declines to Review Challenge to Local 
Assault Weapons Ban, by Vivian S. Chu. 1 p. 
(WSLG1462) 

Supreme Court Denies Certiorari in SEC In-House 
Administrative Forum Challenge, by Michael V. 
Seitzinger. 1 p. (WSLG1555) 

Supreme Court Expected to Weigh In on the Heart of 
Takings Clause Claims, by David H. Carpenter. 1 p. 
(WSLG1669) 

Supreme Court Halts Enforcement of Another 

Admitting Privileges Law, by Jon O. Shimabukuro. 

1 p. (WSLG1529) 

Supreme Court Holds that the False Claims Act Can 
Create Civil Liability for “Half-Truths,” But Only 
in Limited Circumstances, by Stephen P. Mulligan. 
1 p. (WSLG1603) 

The Supreme Court Invalidates Florida’s Death Penalty 
Procedures, by Alison M. Smith. 1 p. (WSLG1487) 

Supreme Court Issues First Post-Justice Scalia 4-4 Split- 
-in ECOA Case Involving Spousal Guarantors, 
by M. Maureen Murphy. 1 p. (WSLG1532) 

Supreme Court Leaves Congress to Address Puerto 
Rico’s Fiscal Woes, by Carol A. Pettit. 1 p. 
(WSLG1608) 

Supreme Court Overturns Damage Award Against 

California’s Tax Agency, by Erika K. Lunder. 1 p. 
(WSLG1564) 

Supreme Court Poised to Consider Affordable Care Act, 
Again - Part I: Split Among the Federal Circuits 
on Contraceptive Coverage, by Cynthia Brown. 1 p. 
(WSLG1453) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


108 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


Supreme Court Poised to Consider Affordable Care 
Act, Again - Part II: Supreme Court Review and 
Congressional Implications, by Cynthia Brown. 1 p. 
(WSLG1454) 

Supreme Court Resolves Lingering Dispute over 

Contract “Set-Asides” for Veteran-Owned Small 
Businesses, by Kate M. Manuel. 1 p. (WSLG1602) 

Supreme Court, Seemingly Divided at Oral Arguments, 
Requests Potential Compromises in Contraceptive 
Coverage Challenges, by Cynthia Brown. 1 p. 
(WSLG1534) 

Supreme Court Strikes Down Texas Abortion 
Requirements, by Jon O. Shimabukuro. 1 p. 
(WSLG1610) 

Supreme Court Takes Ninth Circuit Insider Trading 
Case, by Michael V. Seitzinger. 1 p. (WSLG1497) 

Supreme Court to Address Whether Cities May 
Sue Mortgage Lenders for Lost Taxes Due 
to Foreclosures, by David H. Carpenter. 1 p. 
(WSLG1630) 

Supreme Court to Consider a Second Redistricting 
Case in 2016 Term, by L. Paige Whitaker. 1 p. 
(WSLG1666) 

Supreme Court to Consider How Much Race May Be 
Taken Into Account In Redistricting, by L. Paige 
Whitaker. 1 p. (WSLG1600) 

Supreme Court to Decide Case with Important 
Implications for Tribal Authority Over 
Nonmembers, by Jane M. Smith. 1 p. (WSLG1458) 

Supreme Court to Hear Oral Arguments in VA 
Contracting Case, by Kate M. Manuel. 1 p. 
(WSLG1479) 

Supreme Court to Review Texas Abortion Case, 
byjon O. Shimabukuro. 1 p. (WSLG1441) 

Supreme Court Upholds Arizona State Redistricting 
Map, by L. Paige Whitaker. 1 p. (WSLG1596) 

Supreme Court Upholds University of Texas’s Affirmative 
Action Plan, by Jody Feder. 1 p. (WSLG1609) 


Supreme Court Vacancies: Frequently Asked Questions, 
by Sarah S. Herman. 6 p. (R44440) 

Supreme Court Vacancies That Arose During One 
Presidency and Were Filled During a Different 
Presidency, by Barry J. McMillion. 3 p. (IN10469) 

The Terrorist Screening Database: Background 

Information, by Jerome P. Bjelopera. 10 p. (R44529) 

Three-Judge Court Must Be Convened In Constitutional 
Challenges to Redistricting Maps, by L. Paige 
Whitaker. 1 p. (WSLG1470) 

To Recuse, or not to Recuse - That is the Question 

(before the Supreme Court), by Sarah S. Herman. 

1 p. (WSLG1545) 

Trafficking in Persons and U.S. Foreign Policy Responses 
in the 114th Congress, by Liana W. Rosen. 18 p. 
(R44581) 

Trial Judge Scraps FSOC’s MetLife SiFi Designation: 
Appeal to Follow, by M. Maureen Murphy. 1 p. 
(WSLG1S54) 

Tropical Storm? The Supreme Court Considers Double 
Jeopardy and the Sovereign Status of Puerto Rico, 
by Kenneth R. Thomas. 1 p. (WSLG1427) 

Tying Up Loose Ends... Supreme Court To Evaluate 

Federal Firearm Provision Again, by Vivian S. Chu. 
1 p. (WSLG1445) 

Unanimous Court Draws Limits on the Meaning of 
“Official Act” for Purposes of Federal Public 
Corruption Law, byJackMaskell and Cynthia 
Brown. 1 p. (WSLG1625) 

United States Supreme Court: Criminal Law Cases in 
the October 2015 Term, by Charles Doyle and 
Sarah S. Herman. 55 p. (R44446) 

Updated: Obama Administration Asks Supreme Court 
to Take Immediate Action to Review Fifth 
Circuit Ruling Blocking 2014 Deferred-Action 
Programs: Now What?, by Sarah S. Herman. 1 p. 
(WSLG1605) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


109 







CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


U.S. Circuit Court Vacancies: Overview and Comparative 
Analysis, by Barry J. McMillion. 4 p. (IN10505) 

U.S. Circuit Court Vacancies: Overview and Comparative 
Analysis, by Barry J. McMillion. 4 p. (IN10569) 

U.S. District and Circuit Court Vacancies: Overview and 
Comparative Analysis, by Barry J. McMillion. 5 p. 
(IN10407) 

U.S. District Court Vacancies: Overview and 

Comparative Analysis, by Barry J. McMillion. 4 p. 
(IN10504) 

U.S. District Court Vacancies: Overview and 

Comparative Analysis, by Barry J. McMillion. 4 p. 
(IN10570) 

U.S. Supreme Court 2015 Term: Cases and 
Interpretation, by Andrew Nolan, Jon O. 
Shimabukuro, Cynthia Brown and Kate M. 
Manuel. (WRE00138) 

U.S. Supreme Court 2015 Term: Cases and 

Interpretation, by Andrew Nolan, Jon O. 
Shimabukuro, Cynthia Brown and Kate M. 
Manuel. (WVB00094) 

U.S. Tax Court: A Brief Introduction, by Barry J. 

McMillion and Erika K. Lunder. 2 p. (IF10331) 

Vacancy on the Supreme Court: CRS Products, 
by Andrew Nolan and Kate M. Manuel. 1 p. 
(WSLG1526) 

Video Broadcasting from the Federal Courts: Issues for 
Congress, by Sarah J. Eckman. 4 p. (R44514) 

Wake Up Call for Financial Institution Management: 

Anti-Money Laundering Program Is Your Personal 
Responsibility, by M. Maureen Murphy. 1 p. 
(WSLG1515) 

Wells Fargo and U.S. Reach Tentative 11.2 Billion 
Agreement Over Faulty FHA Mortgages, 
by David H. Carpenter. 1 p. (WSLG1496) 

Wells Fargo’s Selling Campaign—Enforcement Actions, 
Civil Penalties, and Possible Criminal Charges, 
by M. Maureen Murphy. 1 p. (WSLG1671) 


What Does Justice Scalia’s Death Mean for Congress 
and the Nation?, by Andrew Nolan and Kate M. 
Manuel. 1 p. (WSLG1495) 

What Does the Supreme Court’s 4-4 Split in Texas Mean 
for Future Executive Action as to Immigration?, 
by Kate M. Manuel. 1 p. (WSLG1629) 

What, If Anything, Has Judge Garland Said About the 
Second Amendment and Guns?, by Vivian S. Chu. 
1 p. (WSLG1570) 

What’s RICO?, by Charles Doyle. 1 p. (WSLG1595) 

When Are Violent Crimes Federal Hate Crimes?, 
by Charles Doyle. 1 p. (WSLG1598) 

When Can a Defendant Use Her Own Money to 
Pay for Her Attorney?, by Charles Doyle. 1 p. 
(WSLG1513) 

When Does Evidence that is the “Fruit of the Poisonous 
Tree” Become Edible? The Supreme Court 
Examines the Attenuation Exception to the 
Exclusionary Rule, by Sarah S. Herman. 1 p. 
(WSLG1524) 

When Do Police Need A Warrant for a Sobriety Test?, 
by Charles Doyle. 1 p. (WSLG1560) 

When Do Police Need A Warrant for a Sobriety Test?, 
by Charles Doyle. 1 p. (WSLG1616) 

When Is a Three-Judge Court Required In a 

Redistricting Case?, by L. Paige Whitaker. 1 p. 
(WSLG1449) 

When Is Burglary an Armed Career Criminal 
Act Burglary?, by Charles Doyle. 1 p. 

(WSLG1558) 

When Is Contempt of Court Like Murder? When 

Punishing a Parole Violation, by Charles Doyle. 

1 p. (WSLG1498) 

When Is It a Crime to Be a Victim?, by Charles Doyle. 

1 p. (WSLG1531) 

When Is Vermont on the High Seas? When It’s a Matter 
of Venue, by Charles Doyle. 1 p. (WSLG1480) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


110 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


While the Clean Power Plan Is Stayed, EPA Moves 

Forward with the Clean Energy Incentive Program, 
by Linda Tsang. 1 p. (WSLG1626) 

Who Has the Power? Supreme Court Again Attempts 
to Clarify the Relationship Between Federal and 
State Authority to Regulate the Nation’s Electricity 
Markets, by Brandon J. Murrill. 1 p. (WSLG1599) 


You Win Some You Lose Some...New Second 
Amendment Rulings, by Vivian S. Chu. 1 p. 
(WSLG1426) 

You Win Some, You Lose Some: the Complicated Legal 
Status of Daily Fantasy Sports, by Brian T. Yeh. 1 p. 
(WSLG1466) 


MISCELLANEOUS 


The 2016 Olympic Games: Health, Security, 

Environmental, and Doping Issues, by John W. 
Rollins and L. Elaine Halchin. 34 p. (R44575) 

2016 Rio Games: Anti-Doping Testing, by L. Elaine 
Halchin. 3 p. (IN10546) 

Birthdays of Abraham Lincoln and George Washington: 
Fact Sheet, by Sundeep Mahendra. 3 p. (R44418) 

Columbus Day: Fact Sheet, by Audrey Celeste Crane- 
Hirsch. 2 p. (R44218) 

Commemorative Coins: Background, Legislative Process, 
and Issues for Congress, by Jacob R. Straus. 27 p. 
(R44623) 

Congress.gov New Features, by Kelly J. Yuzawa. 
(WPE2707) 

Congress.gov New Features, by Kelly J. Yuzawa. 
(WPE10184) 

Congressional Adoption of Vine, by Jacob R. Straus and 
Matthew E. Glassman. 2 p. (IF10458) 

CRS Services Briefing, by Adrienne Keys. (WPE10047) 

CRS Services Briefing, by Adrienne Keys. (WPE10231) 

CRS Services Briefing, by Adrienne Keys. (WPE10362) 

CRS Services Briefing, by Cheryl L. Ingraham. 
(WPE2739) 

CRS Services Briefing, by Cheryl L. Ingraham. 
(WPE10025) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorde 


CRS Services Briefing, by Cheryl L. Ingraham. 
(WPE10230) 

CRS Services Briefing, by Cheryl L. Ingraham. 
(WPE10248) 

CRS Services Briefing, by Cheryl L. Ingraham. 
(WPE10357) 

CRS Services Briefing, by Emiliano E. DeCastro. 
(WPE10046) 

CRS Services Briefing, by Emiliano E. DeCastro. 
(WPE10250) 

CRS Services Briefing, by Emiliano E. DeCastro. 
(WPE10252) 

CRS Services Briefing, by Jennifer M. Roscoe. 
(WPE2728) 

CRS Services Briefing, by Jennifer M. Roscoe. 
(WPE10174) 

CRS Services Briefing, by Jennifer M. Roscoe. 
(WPE10251) 

CRS Services Briefing, by Jill Ziegler. (WPE10173) 

CRS Services Briefing, by Jill Ziegler. (WPE10232) 

CRS Services Briefing, by Kimberly E. Crawford. 
(WPE2740) 

CRS Services Briefing, by Kimberly E. Crawford. 
(WPE10021) 

CRS Services Briefing, by Kimberly E. Crawford. 
(WPE10229) 

product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
d event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


Ill 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


CRS Services Briefing, by Kimberly E. Crawford. 
(WPE10360) 

CRS Services Briefing, by Lee A. Rowe. (WPE10048) 

CRS Services Briefing, by Lee A. Rowe. (WPE10249) 

CRS Services Briefing, by Lee A. Rowe. (WPE10359) 

CRS Services Briefing, by Megan D. Meehan. 
(WPE2727) 

CRS Services Briefing, by Megan D. Meehan. 
(WPE2738) 

CRS Services Briefing, by Megan D. Meehan. 
(WPE10228) 

CRS Services Briefing, by Megan D. Meehan. 
(WPE10361) 

CRS Services Briefing, by Suzanne Salgado. (WPE10227) 

CRS Services Briefing, by Suzanne Salgado. (WPE10356) 

Daylight Saving Time, by Beth Cook. 6 p. (R44411) 

District/State Staff Institute, by Jennifer M. Roscoe, 

Michele L. Malloy, Julie Jennings, Maria A. Kreiser, 
James V. Saturno, Mark J. Oleszek and R. Eric 
Petersen. (WPE10185) 

District/State Staff Institute, by Patrice M. George, 
Christina Miracle Bailey, Maria A. Kreiser, Julie 
Jennings, Mark J. Oleszek, James V. Saturno and R. 
Eric Petersen. (WPE2731) 

District/State Staff Institute, by Patrice M. George, 
Christina Miracle Bailey, Sarah J. Eckman, 

James V. Saturno, Bill Heniff and Julie Jennings. 
(WPE10264) 

District/State Staff Institute: December 2015, by Jennifer 
M. Roscoe, Sarah W. Caldwell, Merete Gerli, 
Jessica Tollestrup, Mark J. Oleszek and R. Eric 
Petersen. (WPE2712) 

Federal Grant Financial Reporting Requirements and 

Databases: Frequently Asked Questions, by Natalie 
Keegan. 8 p. (R44374) 


Federal Grants Process, by Natalie Keegan. (WVB00077) 

Federal Legislative History Research: Using Print 
and Electronic Resources, by Barbara J. Bavis. 
(WPE2736) 

Federal Legislative History Research: Using Print 
and Electronic Resources, by Barbara J. Bavis. 
(WPE10179) 

Federal Legislative History Research: Using Print 
and Electronic Resources, by Barbara J. Bavis. 
(WPE10218) 

Federal Legislative History Research: Using Print 
and Electronic Resources, by Barbara J. Bavis. 
(WPE10326) 

Federal Statutory Research: Using Print and Electronic 
Resources, by Andrew Winston. (WPE10059) 

Federal Statutory Research: Using Print and Electronic 
Resources, by Andrew Winston. (WPE10217) 

Federal Statutory Research: Using Print and Electronic 
Resources, by Andrew Winston. (WPE10279) 

Federal Statutory Research: Using Print and Electronic 
Resources, by Andrew Winston. (WPE10385) 

History of House and Senate Restaurants: Context for 

Current Operations and Issues, by Sarah J. Eckman. 
16 p. (R44600) 

House Advanced Legislative Process (HALPS): 

Fall 2016, by Christopher M. Davis. (WPE10335) 

House Advanced Legislative Process (HALPS): Fall 
2016, by Elizabeth Rybicki. (WPE10334) 

House Advanced Legislative Process (HALPS): Fall 
2016, by Mark J. Oleszek. (WPE10336) 

House Advanced Legislative Process (HALPS): Fall 
2016, by Walter J. Oleszek. (WPE10337) 

House Advanced Legislative Process Series (HALPS: 
Spring 2016), by Christopher M. Davis. 
(WPE10240) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


112 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


House Advanced Legislative Process Series (HALPS: 
Spring 2016), by Elizabeth Rybicki. (WPE10239) 

House Advanced Legislative Process Series (HALPS: 
Spring 2016), by Mark J. Oleszek. (WPE10241) 

House Advanced Legislative Process Series (HALPS: 
Spring 2016), by Valerie Heitshusen. (WPE10242) 

House and Senate Restaurants: Current Operations and 
Issues for Congress, by Sarah J. Eckman. 15 p. 
(R44601) 

Internships in Congressional Offices: Frequently Asked 
Questions, by Sarah J. Eckman. 10 p. (R44491) 

Introduction to Congressional Casework, by R. Eric 
Petersen. (WVB00093) 

Introduction to Legislative Research, by Ann Hemmens. 
(WPE2702) 

Introduction to Legislative Research, by Ann Hemmens. 
(WPE10180) 

Introduction to Legislative Research, by Ann Hemmens. 
(WPE10216) 

Introduction to Legislative Research, by Ann Hemmens. 
(WPE10386) 

Introduction to Legislative Research, by Barbara J. Bavis. 
(WPE2726) 

Introduction to Legislative Research, by Barbara J. Bavis. 
(WPE2737) 

Introduction to Legislative Research, by Barbara J. Bavis. 
(WPE10028) 

Introduction to Legislative Research, by Barbara J. Bavis. 
(WPE10043) 

Introduction to Legislative Research, by Barbara J. Bavis. 
(WPE10280) 

Introduction to Legislative Research, by Shameema A. 
Rahman. (WPE2689) 

Introduction to Legislative Research, by Shameema A. 
Rahman. (WPE10219) 


Introduction to Legislative Research, by Shameema A. 
Rahman. (WPE10278) 

Introduction to Legislative Research, by Shameema A. 
Rahman. (WPE10325) 

Introduction to Legislative Research, by Shameema A. 
Rahman. (WPE10381) 

Martin Luther King, Jr. Day Speech Resources: 

Fact Sheet, by Valerie S. Cervantes. 3 p. (R44339) 

National African American History Month Speech 

Resources: Fact Sheet, by Jerry W. Mansfield. 3 p. 
(R44363) 

Native American Heritage Month: Fact Sheet, by Audrey 
Celeste Crane-Hirsch. 3 p. (R44258) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Jill Ziegler. 
(WPE10153) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE2722) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE2723) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE2724) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE2733) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE2734) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE2735) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE2746) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE2755) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10022) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10027) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


113 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10029) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10038) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10039) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10040) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10041) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10045) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10172) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10186) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10187) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10188) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10199) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10200) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10201) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10202) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10203) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10204) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10205) 


Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10210) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10243) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10257) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10259) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10263) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10265) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10268) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10270) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10271) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10272) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10273) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10274) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10275) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10277) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10303) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10312) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10339) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


114 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10340) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10343) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10344) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10348) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10349) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10350) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10351) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10369) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10371) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10372) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10376) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10378) 


Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10379) 

Orientation for Interns and Volunteers, by Patrice M. 
George. (WPE10380) 

Senate Advanced Legislative Process Series (SALPS): 
Fall 2016, by Bill Heniff Jr. (WPE10332) 

Senate Advanced Legislative Process Series (SALPS): 
Fall 2016, by Christopher M. Davis. (WPE10331) 

Senate Advanced Legislative Process Series (SALPS): 
Fall 2016, by Elizabeth Rybicki. (WPE10333) 

Senate Advanced Legislative Process Series (SALPS): 
Fall 2016, by Valerie Heitshusen. (WPE10330) 

Senate Advanced Legislative Process Series (SALPS: 
Spring 2016), by Christopher M. Davis. 
(WPE10237) 

Senate Advanced Legislative Process Series (SALPS: 
Spring 2016), by Elizabeth Rybicki. (WPE10238) 

Senate Advanced Legislative Process Series (SALPS: 
Spring 2016), by Richard S. Beth. (WPE10235) 

Senate Advanced Legislative Process Series (SALPS: 

Spring 2016), by Valerie Heitshusen. (WPE10236) 

Speechwriting Resources: Fact Sheet, by Audrey Celeste 
Crane-Hirsch. 2 p. (R44239) 

Veterans Day Speech Resources: Fact Sheet, by Valerie S. 
Cervantes. 3 p. (R44263) 


SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 


1st Circuit Green Lights Suit against Mobile App for 

Violating Video Privacy Law, by Gina Stevens. 1 p. 
(WSLG1594) 

Anatomy of a Breach, by Chris Jaikaran. (WPE10364) 

Blackout! Are We Prepared to Manage the Aftermath of 
a Cyber-Attack or Other Failure of the Electrical 
Grid?, by Richard J. Campbell. 7 p. (TE10008) 


Broadband Deployment: Status and Federal Programs, 
by Lennard G. Kruger. 2 p. (IF10441) 

Broadband Opportunity Council Report and 

Recommendations, by Lennard G. Kruger. 3 p. 
(IN10367) 

Challenges to the United States in Space, by 

Clark Groves and Steven A. Hildreth. 2 p. 
(IF10337) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


115 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


Changes in the U.S. Commercial Space Industry, 
by Bill Canis. 2 p. (IF10415) 

Court-Ordered Access to Smart Phones: In Brief, by 
Kristin Finklea, Chris Jaikaran and Richard M. 
Thompson II. 7 p. (R44396) 

Cybersecurity: Critical Infrastructure Authoritative 
Reports and Resources, by Rita Tehan. 27 p. 
(R44410) 

Cybersecurity: Cybercrime and National Security 
Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Rita 
Tehan. 37 p. (R44408) 

Cybersecurity: Education, Training, and RStD 
Authoritative Reports and Resources, 
by Rita Tehan. 14 p. (R44406) 

Cybersecurity: Federal Government Authoritative 
Reports and Resources, by Rita Tehan. 1 p. 
(R44427) 

Cybersecurity: Overview Reports and Links to 
Government, News, and Related Resources, 
by Rita Tehan. 15 p. (R44405) 

Cybersecurity: State, Local, and International 
Authoritative Reports and Resources, 
by Rita Tehan. 26 p. (R44417) 

Data Security and Breach Notification Legislation: 
Selected Legal Issues, by Alissa M. Dolan. 

21 p. (R44326) 

Doubling Research and Development for Clean Energy: 
“Mission Innovation,” by Jane A. Leggett. 3 p. 
(IN10403) 

Efforts to Reauthorize the America COMPETES Act: 
In Brief, by John F. Sargent Jr. 4 p. (R44345) 

Encryption and the “Going Dark” Debate, by Kristin 
Finklea. 17 p. (R44481) 

Encryption: Frequently Asked Questions, by Chris 
Jaikaran. 17 p. (R44642) 

Encryption: Selected Legal Issues, by Chris Jaikaran and 
Richard M. Thompson II. 28 p. (R44407) 


FCC Issues Proposed Privacy Rule for Broadband 

Internet Service Providers (ISPs), by Gina Stevens. 
1 p. (WSLG1565) 

The Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform 
Act (FITARA): Frequently Asked Questions, 
by Patricia Moloney Figliola. 6 p. (R44462) 

Federal Lifeline Program: Modernization and Reform, 
by Angele A. Gilroy. 3 p. (IN10470) 

Federally Funded Research and Development 

Centers (FFRDCs): Background and Issues 
for Congress, by Marcy E. Gallo. 18 p. (R44629) 

Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2017, 
by John F. Sargent Jr., Judith A. Johnson, Jim 
Monke, Daniel Morgan, Harold F. Upton, Robert 
Esworthy and Frank Gottron. 61 p. (R44516) 

FLU Preview: Access to Digital Data: The Legal Debate 
over Government Surveillance and Encryption, 
by Richard M. Thompson II. 1 p. (WSLG1540) 

FLU Preview: Deterring Terrorism, Cyber Attacks, 

and Other Threats in the Digital Age, by Richard 
M. Thompson II and Kathleen Ann Ruane. 1 p. 
(WSLG1661) 

Framing Spectrum Policy: Legislative Initiatives, 
by Linda K. Moore. 18 p. (R44433) 

Global Research and Development Expenditures: Fact 
Sheet, by John F. Sargent Jr. 4 p. (R44283) 

The ‘Going Dark’Debate: Encryption and Evolving 
Technology, by Kristin Finklea. (WPE10292) 

The ‘Going Dark’Debate: Encryption and Evolving 
Technology, by Kristin Finklea. (WRE00148) 

The Internet of Things: CRS Experts, by Glenn J. 

McLoughlin and Eric A. Fischer. 3 p. (R44225) 

The Internet of Things: Frequently Asked Questions, 
by Eric A. Fischer. 20 p. (R44227) 

Is Broadband Deployment Reasonable and Timely?, 
by Lennard G. Kruger. 2 p. (IN10438) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


116 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


March-In Rights Under the Bayh-Dole Act, 
by John R. Thomas. 14 p. (R44597) 

March-In Rights Under the Bayh-Dole Act, 
by John R. Thomas. 14 p. (R44640) 

Music Licensing and the DOJ’s Consent Decrees, 
by Brian T. Yeh and Dana A. Scherer. 2 p. 

(IF10445) 

NASA: FY2017 Budget and Appropriations, 
by Daniel Morgan. 6 p. (R44397) 

Net Neutrality: H.R. 2666 and Broadband Rate 
Regulation, by Kathleen Ann Ruane. 1 p. 
(WSLG1502) 

Net Neutrality: Third Time Actually Is a Charm, 
by Kathleen Ann Ruane. 1 p. (WSLG1622) 

Next Steps for Auction ofTV Broadcast Airwaves to 
Commercial Carriers, by Linda K. Moore. 2 p. 
(IN10531) 

Patent Cases in the October 2015 Term of the U.S. 
Supreme Court: Halo Electronics v. Pulse 
Electronics and Cuozzo Speed Technologies v. Lee, 
by Brian T. Yeh. 19 p. (R44622) 

A Patent/Innovation Box as a Tax Incentive for Domestic 
Research and Development, by Jane G. Gravelle. 

15 p. (R44522) 


Perspectives on Federal Cybersecurity Spending: 

In Brief, by Chris Jaikaran and William L. Painter. 

11 p. (R44404) 

Pharmaceutical Patent-Antitrust: Reverse Payment 
Settlements and Product Hopping, 
by John R. Thomas. 16 p. (R44222) 

Renewed Crypto Wars?, by Kristin Finklea. 3 p. (IN10440) 

Repair, Modification, or Resale of Software-Enabled 
Consumer Electronic Devices: Copyright Law 
Issues, by Brian T. Yeh. 22 p. (R44590) 

Should the U.S. Relinquish Its Authority Over the 

Internet Domain Name System?, by Lennard G. 
Kruger. 3 p. (IN10581) 

Treasury Issues White Paper on Fintech and Marketplace 
Lending, by Edward V. Murphy. 3 p. (IN10492) 

Tribal Broadband: Status of Deployment and Federal 
Funding Programs, by Lennard G. Kruger. 

12 p. (R44416) 

Unlocking the Set-Top Box, by Dana A. Scherer. 2 p. 
(IF10364) 

U.S. Research and Development Funding and 

Performance: Fact Sheet, by John F. Sargent Jr. 5 p. 
(R44307) 

What’s on Television? The Intersection of 

Communications and Copyright Policies, 
by Dana A. Scherer. 28 p. (R44473) 


SOCIAL POLICY 


Achieving a Better Life Experience Act (ABLE Act): 
Background and Implementation, by Kirsten J. 
Colello and William R. Morton. 2 p. (IF10363) 

Caregiver Support to Veterans, by Kirsten J. Colello. 2 p. 
(IF10396) 

CCDBG Act of 2014: Key Provisions and 

Implementation Status, by Karen E. Lynch. 2 p. 
(IF10416) 


Child Nutrition Reauthorization in 2016: Background 
and Legislative Activity, by Randy Alison 
Aussenberg. (WPE2749) 

Child Nutrition Reauthorization in 2016: Background 
and Legislative Activity, by Randy Alison 
Aussenberg. (WPE10023) 

Child Nutrition Reauthorization in 2016: Background 
and Legislative Activity, by Randy Alison 
Aussenberg. (WPE10024) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


117 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


Child Nutrition Reauthorization in 2016: Background 
and Legislative Activity (hosted in the CRS Senate 
Center), by Randy Alison Aussenberg. (WPE2750) 

The Child Support Enforcement Program: A Legislative 
History, by Carmen Solomon-Fears. 35 p. (R44423) 

Child Welfare: The Family First Prevention Services Act 
of 2016, by Emilie Stoltzfus. 20 p. (R44538) 

Chronic Homelessness: Background, Research, and 

Outcomes, by Erin Bagalman and Libby Perl. 63 p. 
(R44302) 

The Comprehensive Care Joint Replacement 

Demonstration, by Scott R. Talaga. 2 p. (IF10310) 

Congressionally Directed Medical Research Program 
Funding for FY2015 and FY2016, by Don J. 

Jansen. 2 p. (IF10349) 

Department of Housing and Urban Development 
(HUD): FY2017 Appropriations, by Maggie 
McCarty, Eugene Boyd, Katie Jones and Libby 
Perl. 14 p. (R44495) 

Department of Veterans Affairs FY2017 Appropriations, 
by Sidath Viranga Panangala. 16 p. (R44625) 

Do Veterans Have Choices in How They Access Health 
Care?, by Sidath Viranga Panangala. 2 p. (IF10418) 

Ending Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities: 

Recommendations of the CECANF Released, 
by Emilie Stoltzfus. 2 p. (IN10465) 

Examining Medicaid and CHIP’s Federal Medical 
Assistance Percentage, by Alison Mitchell. 2 p. 
(TE10006) 

The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) Child Labor 
Provisions, by Jon O. Shimabukuro and Sarah A. 
Donovan. 19 p. (R44548) 

Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac in Conservatorship: 
Frequently Asked Questions, by N. Eric Weiss. 

20 p. (R44525) 


Federal Benefits and Services for People with Low 

Income: Overview of Spending Trends, FY2008- 
FY2015, by Gene Falk and Karen Spar. 54 p. 
(R44574) 

Federal Court Weighs in on “VisaGate 2015”: Part 1, 
the Visa Bulletin and Recent Revisions to It, 
by Kate M. Manuel. 1 p. (WSLG1431) 

Federal Court Weighs in on “VisaGate 2015”: Part 2, 
the Court’s Decision and Unresolved Issues, 
by Kate M. Manuel. 1 p. (WSLG1432) 

Federal Lifeline Program: Frequently Asked Questions, 
by Angele A. Gilroy. 5 p. (R44487) 

Fifth Circuit Declines to Lift Injunction Barring 

Implementation of the Obama Administration’s 
2014 Deferred Action Programs, by Sarah S. 
Herman and Kate M. Manuel. 1 p. (WSLG1437) 

First Reported Lawsuit Filed Challenging a Denial of 
Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals, by Kate 
M. Manuel. 1 p. (WSLG1641) 

FLU Preview: Legal Developments in Education: 

Affirmative Action, Sexual Violence, and Gender 
Identity, by Jody Feder. 1 p. (WSLG1549) 

Foster Youth: Higher Education Outcomes and Federal 
Support, by Adrienne L. Fernandes-Alcantara. 2 p. 
(IF10449) 

Foster Youth: State Support for Higher Education, 

by Sarah W. Caldwell and Adrienne L. Fernandes- 
Alcantara. 2 p. (IF10450) 

The Fundamentals of Unemployment Compensation, 
by Katelin P. Isaacs and Julie M. Whittaker. 

2 p. (IF10336) 

Gun Control: CRS Experts, by William J. Krouse. 

8 p. (R44328) 

Gun Violence Reduction Executive Actions, January 4, 
2016: Brief Summary, by William J. Krouse. 2 p. 
(IN10429) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


118 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


Health Insurance Expiring Provisions of the 114th 

Congress, Second Session, by Scott R. Talaga, Cliff 
Binder, Kirsten J. Colello, C. Stephen Redhead, 
Alison Mitchell, Jim Hahn and Annie L. Mach. 13 
p. (R44317) 

How Many People Experience Homelessness?, 
by Libby Perl. 2 p. (IF10312) 

Immigration Legislation and Issues in the 114th 
Congress, by Andorra Bruno, Alison Siskin, 
William A. Kandel, Jerome P. Bjelopera and 
Michael John Garcia. 24 p. (R44230) 

The Independent Payment Advisory Board (IPAB): 

Implications of a Positive Trigger Determination in 
2017, by Christopher M. Davis and Jim Hahn. 2 p. 
(IF10425) 

Interior Immigration Enforcement: Criminal Alien 
Programs, by William A. Kandel. 24 p. (R44627) 

Is Violent Crime in the United States Increasing?, 
by Nathan James. 10 p. (R44259) 

Justice for Victims of Trafficking Act of 2015: Changes 
to Domestic Human Trafficking Policies, by Alison 
Siskin, Kristin Finklea and Adrienne L. Fernandes- 
Alcantara. 17 p. (R44315) 

Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education: 
FY2016 Appropriations, by Karen E. Lynch, 
Heather B. Gonzalez, David H. Bradley, Ada S. 
Cornell, Scott D. Szymendera and Angela Napili. 
51 p. (R44287) 

Mass Murder with Firearms, by William J. Krouse. 
(WPE2695) 

Mass Murder with Firearms, by William J. Krouse. 
(WRE00126) 

Mass Murder with Firearms, by William J. Krouse. 
(WVB00081) 

Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital (DSH) 
Reductions, by Alison Mitchell. 2 p. (IF10422) 

Medicaid Primer, by Alison Mitchell. 2 p. (IF10322) 


Medicare’s Skilled Nursing Facility (SNF) Three-Day 
Inpatient Stay Requirement: In Brief, by Scott R. 
Talaga. 7 p. (R44512) 

Need-Tested Benefit Receipt by Families and Individuals, 
by Gene Falk, Alison Mitchell, Margot L. 
Crandall-Hollick, Maggie McCarty, William R. 
Morton and Karen E. Lynch. 2 p. (IF10355) 

Need-Tested Benefits: Estimated Eligibility and Benefit 
Receipt by Families and Individuals, 
by Gene Falk, Alison Mitchell, Margot L. 
Crandall-Hollick, Maggie McCarty, William R. 
Morton and Karen E. Lynch. 53 p. (R44327) 

Obama Administration Asks Supreme Court to Take 
Immediate Action to Review Fifth Circuit Ruling 
Blocking 2014 Deferred-Action Programs: Now 
What?, by Sarah S. Herman. 

1 p. (WSLG1464) 

The Obama Administration’s November 20,2014, 

Actions as to Immigration: Pending Legal 
Challenges One Year Later, by Kate M. Manuel. 

1 p. (WSLG1442) 

Omnibus Provisions Affecting 501(c)(4) Social Welfare 
Organizations, by Erika K. Lunder. 

1 p. (WSLG1469) 

The Orlando Mass Shooting: CRS Experts, 
by Lisa Seghetti. 3 p. (R44537) 

Orlando Nightclub Mass Shooting: Gun Checks and 
Terrorist Watchlists, by William J. Krouse. 2 p. 
(IN10509) 

Overview of the ACA Medicaid Expansion, by Alison 
Mitchell. 2 p. (IF10399) 

Potential Impact of No Social Security COLA on 

Medicare Part B Premiums in 2016, by Patricia A. 
Davis. 22 p. (R44224) 

Potential Policy Implications of the House Reconciliation 
Bill (H.R. 3762), by Annie L. Mach, Julie M. 
Whittaker, James V. Saturno, C. Stephen Redhead, 
Sean Lowry, Sarah A. Lister, Elayne J. Heisler and 
Jim Hahn. 12 p. (R44238) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


119 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


Prescription Drug Discount Coupons: Implications for 
Public and Commercial Health Care Plans, 
by Suzanne M. Kirchhoff. 22 p. (R44264) 

President’s FY2017 Budget for the Centers for Medicare 
& Medicaid Services (CMS): CRS Experts, 
by Alison Mitchell, lip. (R44382) 

Provisions in the Tax Extenders Bill Affecting 501(c)(4) 
Social Welfare Organizations, by Erika K. Lunder. 
1 p. (WSLG1468) 

Puerto Rico and Health Care Finance: Frequently Asked 
Questions, by Annie L. Mach, Scott R.Talaga, 
Paulette C. Morgan, Alison Mitchell, Suzanne 
M. Kirchhoff, Jim Hahn, Sarah A. Donovan and 
Patricia A. Davis. 33 p. (R44275) 

A Resurgence of Unaccompanied Alien Children?, 
by William A. Kandel. 2 p. (IN10493) 

Runaway and Homeless Youth: Recent Federal Support 
and FY2016 Appropriations, by Adrienne L. 
Fernandes-Alcantara. 2 p. (IF10402) 

Social Security and Same-Sex Marriage: Post Obergefell 
v. Hodges, by Dawn Nuschler, William R. Morton 
and Emily M. Lanza. 13 p. (R44314) 

Social Security and Social Security Disability Insurance 
(SSDI) Provisions in the Proposed Bipartisan 
Budget Agreement of 2015, by Scott D. 
Szymendera. 10 p. (R44250) 

Social Security Overview, by Dawn Nuschler. 2 p. 
(IF10426) 


Social Security’s Filing Rules: Recent Changes, by Dawn 
Nuschler. 2 p. (IF10435) 

TANF Reauthorization: House Ways and Means 
Committee Discussion Draft of July 10,2015, 
by Gene Falk, Carmen Solomon-Fears and Karen 
E. Lynch. 2 p. (IF10315) 

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families and Related 
Programs: The President’s FY2017 Budget 
Proposal, by Gene Falk. 2 p. (IF10367) 

The Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) 
Block Grant Legislation in the 114th Congress, 
by Clinton T. Brass, Natalie Keegan and Gene Falk. 
15 p. (R44518) 

Trends in Child Care Spending from the CCDF and 
TANF, by Karen E. Lynch. 27 p. (R44528) 

Unemployment Compensation: The Fundamentals of the 
Federal Unemployment Tax, by Julie M. Whittaker. 
14 p. (R44527) 

Who Pays for Long-Term Services and Supports?, 
by Kirsten J. Colello. 2 p. (IF10343) 

Workers’ Compensation: Overview and Issues, 
by Scott D. Szymendera. 2 p. (IF10308) 

Workers’ Compensation: Overview and Issues, 
by Scott D. Szymendera. 31 p. (R44580) 

Workers’ Compensation: Overview and Issues for 

Congress, by Scott D. Szymendera.(WRE00130) 

Workers’ Compensation: Overview and Issues for 

Congress, by Scott D. Szymendera. (WVB00085) 


TAX 


The Alternative Minimum Tax for Individuals: In Brief, 
by Donald J. Marples. 5 p. (R44494) 

College and University Endowments: Overview and Tax 
Policy Options, by Molly F. Sherlock, Jeffrey M. 
Stupak, Margot L. Crandall-Hollick and Jane G. 
Gravelle. 27 p. (R44293) 


Consumption Taxes: An Overview, by Donald J. Marples 
and Jeffrey M. Stupak. 16 p. (R44342) 

Corporate Inversions: Frequently Asked Legal Questions, 
by Erika K. Lunder. lip. (R44617) 

Corporate Tax Integration and Tax Reform, 
by Jane G. Gravelle. 38 p. (R44638) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


120 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


The Effect of Base-Broadening Measures on Labor 
Supply and Investment: Considerations for 
Tax Reform, by Donald J. Marples and Jane G. 
Gravelle. 29 p. (R44242) 

EU State Aid and Apple’s Taxes, by Jane G. Gravelle. 2 p. 
(IN10561) 

FATCA Reporting on U.S. Accounts: Recent Legal 
Developments, by Carol A. Pettit and Erika K. 
Lunder. 16 p. (R44616) 

Federal Court Holds that Lost Tax Revenue is Property 
Under The Takings Clause, by David H. Carpenter. 
1 p. (WSLG1589) 

Federal Reserve: Legislation in the 114th Congress, 
by Marc Labonte. 13 p. (R44273) 

FLU Preview: Developments in International Tax Law, 
by Carol A. Pettit and Erika K. Lunder. 

1 p. (WSLG1659) 

Health-Related Tax Expenditures: Overview and 
Analysis, by Sean Lowry. 15 p. (R44333) 

Individual Taxpayer Identification Number (ITIN) 

Filers and the Child Tax Credit: Overview and 
Legislation, by Erika K. Lunder and Margot L. 
Crandall-Hollick. 6 p. (R44420) 

Internet Sales and State Taxes: Policy Issues, by Sean 
Lowry and Erika K. Lunder. 2 p. (IN 10418) 

IRS Proposes Controversial Regulations Regarding 
Charity Donors’ SSNs, by Erika K. Lunder. 

1 p. (WSLG1463) 

Issues in a Tax Reform Limited to Corporations and 
Businesses, by Jane G. Gravelle. 18 p. (R44220) 

Judge Garland and the IRS’s Z Street Case, 
by Erika K. Lunder. 1 p. (WSLG1544) 

Legal Authority for Aliens to Claim Refundable Tax 

Credits: In Brief, by Erika K. Lunder. 9 p. (R44290) 

Modifications to the Hope Credit/American 

Opportunity Tax Credit (AOTC) Made Permanent 
in “Tax Extenders,” by Margot L. Crandall-Hollick. 
3 p. (IN 10423) 


A Modification to the Child Tax Credit Made 

Permanent in “Tax Extenders,” by Margot L. 
Crandall-Hollick. 2 p. (IN10421) 

The New Internal Revenue Service Private Tax Debt 
Collection Program, by Gary Guenther. 2 p. 
(IF10339) 

Omnibus Provisions Affecting 501(c)(4) Social Welfare 
Organizations, by Erika K. Lunder. 

1 p. (WSLG1469) 

A Patent/Innovation Box as a Tax Incentive for Domestic 
Research and Development, by Jane G. Gravelle. 

15 p. (R44522) 

Proposed Changes in Real Estate Investment Trusts 
(REITs) and the Foreign Investment in Real 
Property Tax Act (FIRPTA), by Jane G. Gravelle. 

2 p. (IN10411) 

Provisions in the Tax Extenders Bill Affecting 501(c)(4) 
Social Welfare Organizations, by Erika K. Lunder. 

1 p. (WSLG1468) 

Puerto Rico’s “New” Excise Tax on U.S. Businesses: An 
Indirect Subsidy?, by Carol A. Pettit and Erika K. 
Lunder. 1 p. (WSLG1578) 

Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) and the Foreign 
Investment in Real Property Tax Act (FIRPTA): 
Overview and Recent Tax Revisions, by Jane G. 
Gravelle. 11 p. (R44421) 

Sixth Circuit Rules Against IRS in 501(c)(4) Case, 
by Erika K. Lunder. 1 p. (WSLG1543) 

Social Security Payroll Tax Reallocation Provision in the 
Proposed Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015, 
by William R. Morton. 3 p. (IN10386) 

Spending and Tax Expenditures: Distinctions and Major 
Programs, by Grant A. Driessen. 15 p. (R44530) 

Taxation of Credit Unions: In Brief, by Donald J. 
Marples. 7 p. (R44439) 

Taxation of U.S. Olympic Medal Winners, by Donald J. 
Marples. 1 p. (IN10556) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


121 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


Temporary Modifications to the EITC Made Permanent U.S. Tax Court: A Brief Introduction, by Barry J. 

in “Tax Extenders,” by Margot L. Crandall-Hollick. McMillion and Erika K. Lunder. 2 p. (IF10331) 

3 p. (IN 10420) 


TRADE 


Agriculture and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment 
Partnership (T-TIP) Negotiations, by Renee 
Johnson. 37 p. (R44564) 

American Agriculture and the Trans-Pacific Partnership 
(TPP) Agreement, by Mark A. McMinimy. 14 p. 
(R44337) 

The Changing Contours of the Global Economy, by 

Ian F. Fergusson, James K. Jackson and Wayne M. 
Morrison. (WVB00100) 

China’s Efforts to Address Ongoing Food Safety 
Concerns, by William A. Saturno and Renee 
Johnson. 2 p. (IF10465) 

China’s Status as a Nonmarket Economy (NME), 
by Wayne M. Morrison. 2 p. (IF10385) 

CRS Products on the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), 
by Brock R. Williams and Ian F. Fergusson. 2 p. 
(IN10443) 

Currency Exchange Rate Policies and the 

World Trade Organization Subsidies Agreement, 
by Brandon J. Murrill. 2 p. (IF10406) 

Digital Trade and U.S. Trade Policy, by Rachel F. Fefer, 
Wayne M. Morrison and Shayerah Ilias Akhtar. 

36 p. (R44565) 

Dispute Settlement in the World Trade Organization: 
Key Legal Concepts, by Brandon J. Murrill. 

2 p. (IF10436) 

Dominican Republic-Central America-United States 
Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR), 
by M. Angeles Villarreal. 2 p. (IF10394) 

The Economic Effects of Trade: Overview and 

Policy Challenges, by James K. Jackson. 40 p. 
(R44546) 


Economic Implications of a United Kingdom Exit from 
the European Union, by James K. Jackson, Derek E. 
Mix and Shayerah Ilias Akhtar. 18 p. (R44559) 

Executive Agreements: An Introduction, by Michael John 
Garcia. 1 p. (IG10002) 

Ex-Im Bank: No Quorum, No Problem?, 

by Shayerah Ilias Akhtar. 2 p. (IN10574) 

FLU Preview: Beyond the Buy American Act: The 

Interplay of Domestic Content Restrictions with 
International Trade Obligations, by Brandon J. 
Murrill and Stephen P. Mulligan. 

1 p. (WSLG1634) 

FLU Preview: The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement: 
Labor and Environmental Obligations, Investor- 
State Dispute Settlement, and Other Legal Issues, 
by Brandon J. Murrill. 1 p. (WSLG1542) 

Fresh Beef Import Rules for Brazil and Argentina, 
by Joel L. Greene. 2 p. (IF10373) 

Geographical Indications in the Transatlantic 

Trade and Investment Partnership (T-TIP) 
Negotiations, by Renee Johnson. 20 p. (R44556) 

Human Trafficking and Forced Labor: Trends in Import 
Restrictions, by Liana W. Rosen, Ashley Feng and 
M. Angeles Villarreal. 3 p. (IN10541) 

IMF Provisions in the FY2016 Omnibus, by Martin A. 
Weiss and Rebecca M. Nelson. 3 p. (IN10416) 

The IMF’s Special Drawing Right and China’s Renminbi, 
by Martin A. Weiss. 2 p. (IF10327) 

Implementing Bills for Trade Agreements: 

Statutory Procedures Under Trade Promotion 
Authority, by Richard S. Beth. 33 p. (R44584) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


122 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


Israel and the Boycott, Divestment, and Sanctions (BDS) 
Movement, by Jim Zanotti, Kathleen Ann Ruane 
and Martin A. Weiss. 15 p. (R44281) 

Is the Chinese “Economic Miracle" Over?, 
by Wayne M. Morrison. 2 p. (IF10313) 

Miscellaneous Tariff Bills, by Vivian C. Jones. 2 p. 
(IF10478) 

Patents and Prescription Drug Importation, 
byjohn R.Thomas. 13 p. (R44511) 

Possible Economic Impact of Brexit, by Shayerah Ilias 
Akhtar and James K. Jackson. 3 p. (IN10517) 

Proposed Boeing Aircraft Sale to Iran, by Kenneth 

Katzman, Dianne E. Rennack and Shayerah Ilias 
Akhtar. 3 p. (IN10515) 

Revisiting U.S.-Mexico Sugar Agreements, 
by Mark A. McMinimy. 2 p. (IN10552) 

The TPP Agreement: What’s in It for U.S. Agriculture?, 
by Mark A. McMinimy. 2 p. (IF10301) 

TPP: Digital Trade Provisions, by Rachel F. Fefer. 

2 p. (IF10390) 

TPP: Estimates of Economic Effects, by James K. 
Jackson. 2 p. (IF10431) 

TPP Financial Services Data Flows, by Rachel F. Fefer. 

2 p. (IN 10498) 

TPP: Intellectual Property Rights (IPR), by Ian 
F. Fergusson and Shayerah Ilias Akhtar. 2 p. 

(IF10442) 

TPP: Investment Provisions, by Shayerah 

Ilias Akhtar and Ian F. Fergusson. 2 p. (IF10476) 

TPP: Fabor Provisions, by Ian F. Fergusson and M. 
Angeles Villarreal. 2 p. (IF10452) 

TPP: Selected Impacts for U.S. Agriculture and Food 
Industries, by Mark A. McMinimy. 2 p. (IF10326) 

TPP: Taking the Measure of the Agreement for U.S. 

Agriculture, by Mark A. McMinimy. 2 p. (IF10412) 


TPP: U.S.-Japan Issues, by Brock R. Williams, 

Mark E. Manyin, Taishu Yamakawa, Mark A. 
McMinimy and Bill Canis. 2 p. (IF10456) 

Trade-Based Money Faundering: Overview and Policy 
Issues, by Rena S. Miller, James K. Jackson and 
Fiana W. Rosen. 18 p. (R44541) 

Trade in Services Agreement (TiSA) Negotiations, 
by Rachel F. Fefer. 2 p. (IF10311) 

Trade in Services Agreement (TiSA) Negotiations: 
Overview and Issues for Congress, by Rachel F. 
Fefer. 16 p. (R44354) 

Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) and U.S. Trade 

Agreements, by Brock R. Williams. 1 p. (IG10001) 

The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement Analysis of 
Economic Studies, by James K. Jackson. 31 p. 
(R44551) 

The Trans-Pacific Partnership: In Brief, by Brock 
R. Williams, Ian F. Fergusson and Mark A. 
McMinimy. 13 p. (R44278) 

Trans-Pacific Partnership: Overview, Timeline, 

Geopolitical and Economic Impact, by Ben Dolven, 
Brock R. Williams, James K. Jackson and Ian F. 
Fergusson. (WRE00150) 

Trans-Pacific Partnership: Overview, Timeline, 

Geopolitical and Economic Impact, by Ian F. 
Fergusson, Ben Dolven, Brock R. Williams and 
James K. Jackson. (WVB00108) 

Trans-Pacific Partnership: Rules of Origin, by Vivian C. 
Jones, Michaela D. Platzer and Bill Canis. 

2 p. (IF10393) 

The Trans-Pacific Partnership: Strategic Implications, 
by Brock R. Williams, Ben Dolven, Michael F. 
Martin, Mark E. Manyin, Wayne M. Morrison and 
Ian F. Fergusson. 14 p. (R44361) 

Trans-Pacific Partnership: Tariffs, Rules of Origin, 

Autos, and Textiles/Apparel/Footwear, by Brock 
R. Williams, Bill Canis, Michaela D. Platzer and 
Vivian C. Jones. (WRE00153) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


123 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


Trans-Pacific Partnership: Tariffs, Rules of Origin, Autos, 
and Textiles/Apparel/Footwear, by Vivian C. Jones, 
Michaela D. Platzer, Bill Canis and Brock R. 
Williams. (WVB00113) 

The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP): First Take, by 
Brock R. Williams and Ian F. Fergusson. 3 p. 
(IN10371) 

The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP): Key Provisions and 
Issues for Congress, by Brock R. Williams, Ian F. 
Fergusson, Michaela D. Platzer, James K. Jackson, 
M. Angeles Villarreal, Bill Canis, Rebecca M. 
Nelson, Gabriel M. Nelson, Shayerah Bias Akhtar, 
Ben Dolven and Vivian C. Jones. 86 p. (R44489) 

Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP): Questions 8c Answers, 
by Ian F. Fergusson, Brock R. Williams and Ben 
Dolven. (WPE2716) 

Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP): Roundtable Discussion, 
by Ian F. Fergusson, Mark A. McMinimy and 
Brock R. Williams. (WPE2718) 

The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP)-Trade Promotion 
Authority (TPA) Timeline, by Ian F. Fergusson. 

2 p. (IF10297) 

U.S.-Brazil Trade Relations, by M. Angeles Villarreal and 
Fernando A. Gracia. 2 p. (IF10447) 


A U.S.-China Bilateral Investment Treaty (BIT): Issues 
and Implications, by Wayne M. Morrison. 2 p. 
(IF10307) 

U.S. Crude Oil Exports to International Destinations, 
by Phillip Brown. 4 p. (IN10472) 

U.S.-India Trade Relations, by K. Alan Kronstadt and 
Shayerah Ilias Akhtar. 2 p. (IF10384) 

U.S. LNG Exports from the Lower 48, by Joseph 
Schnide and Michael Ratner. 4 p. (IN10525) 

U.S. Natural Gas Exports and the Trans-Pacific 

Partnership (TPP) Agreement, by Michael Ratner 
and Paul W. Parfomak. 3 p. (IN10375) 

U.S. Textile Manufacturing and the Proposed Trans- 
Pacific Partnership Agreement, by Michaela D. 
Platzer. 21 p. (R44610) 

U.S. Withdrawal from Free Trade Agreements: 

Frequently Asked Legal Questions, by Brandon J. 
Murrill. 19 p. (R44630) 

What Is the Regional Comprehensive Economic 

Partnership?, by Michael F. Martin, Ben Dolven, 
Brock R. Williams, Wayne M. Morrison, Bruce 
Vaughn and Ian F. Fergusson. 2 p. (IF10342) 


TRANSPORTATION 


Automakers Seek to Align Fuel Economy and Greenhouse 
Gas Regulations, by Bill Canis. 2 p. (IN10550) 

Cargo Preferences for U.S.-Flag Shipping, by Tohn 
Frittelli. 16 p. (R44254) 

The Coast Guard’s Role in Safeguarding Maritime 

Transportation: Selected Issues, by John Frittelli. 

15 p. (R44566) 

Delivery Drones: Coming to the Sky Near You?, 
by Alissa M. Dolan. 1 p. (WSLG1571) 

Department of Transportation (DOT): FY2017 
Appropriations, by David Randall Peterman. 

14 p. (R44499) 


Draft House Transportation Bill Would Hold Spending 
Below Senate Bill, by Robert S. Kirk. 3 p. 
(IN10379) 

Effects of Buy America on Transportation Infrastructure 
and U.S. Manufacturing: Policy Options, by 
Michaela D. Platzer and William J. Mallett. 19 p. 
(R44266) 

FAST Act (H.R. 22): Surface Transportation Conference 
Report Released, by Robert S. Kirk. 3 p. (IN10406) 

Fatal Balloon Accident Highlights Disagreement 
Between Safety Agencies, by Bart Elias. 2 p. 
(IN10543) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


124 






CRS ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2016 • APPENDIXES 


Federal-Aid Highway Program (FAHP): In Brief, 
by Robert S. Kirk. 13 p. (R44332) 

Federal Freight Policy: In Brief, by John Frittelli. 

12 p. (R44367) 

Federal Highway Traffic Safety Policies: Impacts and 
Opportunities, by David Randall Peterman. 

26 p. (R44394) 

Highway Bridge Conditions: Issues for Congress, 
by William J. Mallett and Robert S. Kirk. 16 p. 
(R44459) 

Highways and Highway Safety on Indian Lands, 
by William J. Mallett. 13 p. (R44359) 

House Adds New Components to Senate Motor Vehicle 
Safety Bill, by Bill Canis. 2 p. (IN10396) 

House Includes Amendment Eliminating the Federal 
Reserve’s Surplus in the Highway Bill, by Marc 
Labonte. 2 p. (IN10395) 

House Surface Transportation Bill Shares Similarities 
with Senate Version, by Robert S. Kirk. 3 p. 
(IN10392) 

How a National Infrastructure Bank Might Work, 
by William J. Mallett. 3 p. (IN10572) 

Mileage-Based Road User Charges, by Marc Levinson 
and Robert S. Kirk. 15 p. (R44540) 

The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB): 

Background and Possible Issues for Reauthorization 
and Oversight, by Bart Elias. 11 p. (R44587) 

New Bureau Consolidates Transportation Finance 

Programs, by William J. Mallett. 2 p. (IN10539) 

The New Surface Transportation Act, by Marc Levinson 
and Robert S. Kirk. (WVB00080) 

Phase 2 Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Fuel Efficiency 
Standards for Heavy-Duty Vehicles, by Richard K. 
Lattanzio. 3 p. (IN10511) 

Public Transportation Capital Investment Grant (New 
Starts) Program: Background and Issues for 
Congress, by William J. Mallett. 19 p. (R44534) 


Racing to Regulate: EPA’s Latest Overreach on Amateur 
Drivers, by Brent D. Yacobucci. 4 p. (TE10007) 

Reauthorization of Federal Aviation Programs: Action 
in the 114th Congress, by Bart Elias and Rachel Y. 
Tang. 3 p. (IN10480) 

Selected Financial Services Provisions in Conference 
Report for H.R. 22, Fixing America’s Surface 
Transportation (FAST) Act, by Sean M. Hoskins, 
Darryl E. Getter, Gary Shorter, Rena S. Miller and 
Marc Labonte. 3 p. (IN10409) 

Senate, House Reach Compromise on Aviation, 

by Rachel Y.Tang and Bart Elias. 4 p. (IN10523) 

Surface Transportation Funding and Programs Under the 
Fixing America’s Surface Transportation Act (FAST 
Act; PL. 114-94), by Robert S. Kirk, William J. 
Mallett, David Randall Peterman, Bill Canis, John 
Frittelli and Linda Luther. 29 p. (R44388) 

Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, 
and Related Agencies (THUD): FY2017 
Appropriations, by David Randall Peterman and 
Maggie McCarty. 13 p. (R44500) 

Unmanned Aircraft Operations in Domestic Airspace: 
U.S. Policy Perspectives and the Regulatory 
Landscape, by Bart Elias. 25 p. (R44352) 

The U.S. Role in Aviation Security Abroad, by Bart Elias. 
(WVB00107) 

Volkswagen, Defeat Devices, and the Clean Air Act: 
Frequently Asked Questions, by Bill Canis, 

Brent D. Yacobucci, Adam Vann and Richard K. 
Lattanzio. 13 p. (R44372) 

Waiting in Queue: Options for Addressing the Airport 
Screening Line Conundrum, by Bart Elias. 3 p. 
(IN10490) 

The WIFIA “Fix” in H.R. 22, the Fixing America’s 
Surface Transportation (FAST) Act, by Claudia 
Copeland. 2 p. (IN 10410) 


The following acronyms are used: AST = appropriations product, IF = in focus, IG = infographic, IN = insight, R = report, 
TE = testimony, WPE = seminar, WRE = recorded event, WSLG = legal sidebar, and WVB = video brief. 


125 






PHOTOGRAPHY 


Jerry Almonte: Pages 1,3,5-27,29,34,44,49 

David Rice: Pages iv (Capitol dome interior), 
vi (Capitol with Library of Congress dome shadow) 

Carol M. Highsmith: Pages ii (Library's Great Hall), 

4 (Library's Reading Room), 126 (aerial of Capitol Hill) 

Architect of the Capitol: Inside front cover (Statue of Freedom); 
Pages 28 (Small Senate Rotunda), 35 (Rython and Capitol dome) 

Shutterstock: Covers (Capitol facade); inside back cover 


Design: K. Bisola Momoh 



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